CHEM 1035 - week 4 notes
CHEM 1035 - week 4 notes CHEM 1035
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Popular in Chemistry
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Words'nNotes on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1035 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Neidiigh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
Isotopes Isotopes vary in the number of neutrons and therefore have different masses but remain the same element Isotopes are named by their masses, for example carbon 14 has one more neutron than carbon 13 The mass of an element on the periodic table is an average of all of its isotopes and their concentrations in nature, this is called the average molar mass Average molar mass = Σ (mass of each isotope) x (% abundance/ 100) The periodic table Each column has similar properties and is called a group (or family) Each row of the periodic table is called a period The table has 18 groups and 7 periods Metals: on the left side of the periodic table conduct electricity malleable and ductile have luster, mostly solid Metalloids: located on the zig-zag line on the right side of the periodic table look like metals but behave like non-metals Nonmetals: located on the right of the periodic table don’t conduct electricity not malleable or ductile no luster mostly gasses with few liquids or solids Parts of the periodic table Main group elements: columns 1,2 13-18 Transition metals: columns 3-12 Inner transition: located below the periodic table, really within the center of the table Alkali metals: column 1, except H Alkaline earth metals: column 2 Halogens: column 17 (7a) Noble gasses: 18 (8a) “inert gasses” Lanthanides: inner transition row 1 Actinides: inner transition row 2 Compounds There are 2 types of compounds: molecular compounds- composed of molecules of non- metals, covalent bonds – molecules are the smallest particles of a molecular compound Ionic compound- composed of ions and a metal and non- metal Ions Cations are + Anions are - Naming compounds Called Chemical Nomenclature Molecular Compound: only for binary compounds (more than one element) of two non-metals uses prefixes to indicate the quantity of atoms present adds ‘ide’ suffix CO 2 _ - remains the same _ - ‘ide’ suffix added _ - prefix needed Mono is not needed for the 1 element The a or o can be dropped at the end of a prefix if it is in front of oxide Ionic Compounds: the bond between a metal and non-metal the cation (+) comes first the anion (-) second the cation is named after the element the anion has an ‘ide’ suffix no prefixes Compound with more than one Ion: use roman numerals after the cation to indicate charge not the number of atoms present the cation has the name of the metal anion has the ‘ide’ suffix no prefixes Ionic compounds with polyatomic ions cation first, ion second cation has the metals name unless it is a polyatomic ion use roman numeral after the element to indicate its charge the anion is named after the polyatomic ion Naming acids acid is an H and a non-metal Binary Acids- ‘hydro’ + non-metal + ’ic’ , even if there is more than one hydrogen the prefix is always just ‘hydro’ Oxoacids- named like oxoanions except for two suffixes ate becomes ic, and ite becomes ons , if there is more than one polyatomic ions ‘hypo’ is not needed
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