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Anatomy and Physiology- Chapter 2 Part 1 Notes

by: mehrnazighani Notetaker

Anatomy and Physiology- Chapter 2 Part 1 Notes BSCI201

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chapter 2: Basic chemistry and biochemistry
Human Anatomy and Physiology 1
Justicia Opoku-Edusei
Class Notes
Anatomyandphysiology, anatomy, Anatomy& Physiology, Chemistry, biochemistry, chemical, equations, Mixtures, Solutions, Energy, kinetic energy, potential, General Chemistry, Physiology, Science, Biology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by mehrnazighani Notetaker on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSCI201 at University of Maryland - College Park taught by Justicia Opoku-Edusei in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views.


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Date Created: 09/11/16
Chapter 2: Basic Chemistry and Biochemistry-Part 1 by Mehrnaz Ighani . Chemistry: the basis of all physiological reactions such as movement, digestion, metabolism, and etc. . Chemistry has 2 subdivisions: 1. Basic chemistry 2. Biochemistry . Matter: any object that has mass and occupies space ­ Weight is mass+ the force of gravity . 3 states of matter: 1. Solid: defined shape and volume 2. Liquid: changeable shape but defined volume 3. Gas: changeable shape and volume . Energy: the capacity to do work or put matter into motion ­ Doesn’t have mass, nor does it take up space ­ The greater the work done, the more energy needed . Energy exists in 2 forms: 1. Kinetic energy (energy in action) 2. Potential energy (stored energy)  Energy can be transformed from potential energy to kinetic energy and stored energy can be released, resulting in action . Forms of energy: 1. Chemical energy: stored in bonds of chemical substances 2. Electrical energy: results from movement of charged particles 3. Mechanical energy: directly involved in moving matter 4. Radiant/ electromagnetic energy: travels in waves such as x- rays . Energy form conversions: 1. Energy can be converted from one form to another Ex: turning on a lamp converts electrical energy to light energy 2. Energy conversion is inefficient . Some energy is lost as heat . Atoms and elements:  All matter is composed of elements . Elements: substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical methods  4 elements makeup 96% of the human body: . C, H, O, and N . 9 elements makeup 3.9% of body . 11 elements makeup <.01% of body  All elements are made up of atoms . Atoms give each element its particular physical and chemical properties  Atomic symbol: one or two letter chemical shorthand for each element . Common elements composing the body:  Oxygen: component of both organic and inorganic molecules. Needed for the production of ATP  Carbon: component of all organic compounds such as carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids  Hydrogen: component of all organic compounds. As an ion it influences the pH  Nitrogen: component of proteins and nucleic acids . Atoms are composed of 3 particles: ­ Protons: + charged and weighs 1 atomic mass units (amu) ­ Neutrons: no charge ad weighs 1 amu ­ Electrons: - charged and have virtually no weight . Structure of atoms: (Fig. 2.1) o In a neutral atom # of protons= # of electrons o Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus o Chemists devise models of how atomic particles are put together: . Planetary model . Orbital model . Identifying elements: (Fig. 2.2)  Identifying facts about an element include its atomic number, mass #, isotopes. And atomic weight ­ Atomic #: number of protons (subscript of atomic symbol) ­ Mass #: number of protons plus neutrons (superscript of atomic symbol) ­ Isotopes: atoms that contain same # of protons but differ in the number of neutrons ­ Atomic weight: average of mass numbers of all isotopes forms of an atom . Radioisotopes: isotopes that decompose to more stable forms  Atom loses various subatomic particles  As isotope decays, subatomic particles that are being given off release a little energy known as radioactivity  All radioactivity can damage living tissue and cancer, but some types can be used to destroy localized tissue cancers . Molecules and compounds:  Atoms chemically combine with other atoms to form molecules and compounds ­ Molecule: two or more atoms bonded together ­ Compound: specific molecule that has two or more different kinds of atoms bonded together such as glucose . Mixtures: (Fig. 2.4) ­ Two or more components that are physically intermixed ­ 3 types of mixtures: 1. Solutions: solute particles are very tiny 2. Colloids: solute particles are larger than the ones in a solution 3. Suspensions: solute particles are very large and might scatter light  Solutions: ­ Homogenous mixtures ­ Solvent: substance present in greatest amount ­ Solute: substance dissolved in solvent ­ True solutions are usually transparent such as air and most solutions in body ­ Concentration of true solutions: o 3 common ways to express concentrations: 1. % of solute in total solution 2. Mg/dl (milligrams per deciliter) . Ex. Normal blood fasting glucose levels are 80 mg/dl 3. Molarity (M): . The # of moles of solute/ liter of solvent . 1 mole of a compound= molecular weight in g . 1 mole of any substance contains 6.02x10^23 molecules of that substance called the Avogadro’s #  Colloids: ­ Aka Emulsions are heterogeneous mixtures ­ Can see large solute particles in solution that do not settle out ­ Some undergo solution to gel (sol-gel) transformations such as Jell-O  Suspensions: ­ Heterogeneous mixtures that contain large solutes that settle out ­ Blood is a suspension because if left in a tube, the blood cell will settle out . Chemical bonds:  Energy relationships between electrons of reacting atoms, they are not actual physical structures  Electrons are involved in all chemical reactions and they determine whether a chemical rxn will take place and if so what type of chemical bond is formed . Role of electrons in chemical bonding:  Electrons occupy in electron shells  Each electron shell contains electrons that have a certain amount of kinetic energy and potential energy so shells are referred to as energy levels  Shells can hold only a specific # of electrons and the first shell is filled fstst ­ 1 shell: 2 electrons ­ 2nd shell: 8 electrons ­ 3 shell: 18 electrons  Octet rule: atoms desire 8 electrons in their valence shell ( Fig. 2.5) ­ This desire is the driving force behind chemical reactions ­ Most atoms do not have full valence shells . Types of chemical bonds: 1. Ionic 2. Covalent 3. Hydrogen  Ionic bonds: (Fig. 2.6 ab) ­ Ions: atoms that have gained or lost electrons and become charged ­ # of electrons do not equal # of protons ­ Attraction of opposite charges results in an ionic bond ­ Ionic bonds involve the transfer of valence shell electrons from one atom to another one ­ One atom becomes an anion and the other one becomes a cation ­ Most ionic compounds are salts  Covalent bonds: ( Fig. 2.7a, b, and c) ­ Formed by sharing two or more valence shell electrons between two atoms . Sharing 2 electrons  single bond . Sharing 4 electrons  double bond . Sharing 6 electrons  triple bond ­ 2 types of covalent bonds: 1. Polar 2. Nonpolar . Polar covalent bonds: unequal sharing of electrons between two atoms because atoms have different electron attracting abilities leading to unequal sharing such as water (Fig. 2.8a) . Nonpolar covalent bonds: equal sharing of electrons between atoms, electrically balanced such as carbon dioxide (Fig. 2.8b) .Note: atoms with higher electron attracting ability are electronegative and those with less are electropositive  Hydrogen bonds: (Fig. 2.10a, and b) ­ Attractive forces between electropositive hydrogens of one molecule and an electronegative atom of another molecule ­ Common between dipoles (compounds/ molecules with two different charges) such as water ­ Acts as intramolecular bonds, holding a large molecule in a 3D shape ­ The high surface tension of water is a result of the combined strength of its H bonds . Chemical equations:  Chemical reactions occur when chemical bonds are broken, formed, and rearranged  Chemical reactions can be written in symbolic forms called chemical equations  Chemical equations contain: 1. Reactants/ reagents 2. Products  Compounds are represented as molecular formulas  In chemical reactions, subscripts indicate how many atoms are joined by bonds, whereas prefix means # of not joined atoms Works Cited Lindsey, Jerri K., Katja Hoehn, and Elaine Nicpon Marieb. Human Anatomy & Physiology, 9th Edition Elaine N. Marieb, Katja Hoehn. Boston, MA: Pearson, 2013. Print.


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