Anatomy and Physiology- Chapter 2 Part 1 Notes
Anatomy and Physiology- Chapter 2 Part 1 Notes BSCI201
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by mehrnazighani Notetaker on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSCI201 at University of Maryland - College Park taught by Justicia Opoku-Edusei in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
Chapter 2: Basic Chemistry and Biochemistry-Part 1 by Mehrnaz Ighani . Chemistry: the basis of all physiological reactions such as movement, digestion, metabolism, and etc. . Chemistry has 2 subdivisions: 1. Basic chemistry 2. Biochemistry . Matter: any object that has mass and occupies space Weight is mass+ the force of gravity . 3 states of matter: 1. Solid: defined shape and volume 2. Liquid: changeable shape but defined volume 3. Gas: changeable shape and volume . Energy: the capacity to do work or put matter into motion Doesn’t have mass, nor does it take up space The greater the work done, the more energy needed . Energy exists in 2 forms: 1. Kinetic energy (energy in action) 2. Potential energy (stored energy) Energy can be transformed from potential energy to kinetic energy and stored energy can be released, resulting in action . Forms of energy: 1. Chemical energy: stored in bonds of chemical substances 2. Electrical energy: results from movement of charged particles 3. Mechanical energy: directly involved in moving matter 4. Radiant/ electromagnetic energy: travels in waves such as x- rays . Energy form conversions: 1. Energy can be converted from one form to another Ex: turning on a lamp converts electrical energy to light energy 2. Energy conversion is inefficient . Some energy is lost as heat . Atoms and elements: All matter is composed of elements . Elements: substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical methods 4 elements makeup 96% of the human body: . C, H, O, and N . 9 elements makeup 3.9% of body . 11 elements makeup <.01% of body All elements are made up of atoms . Atoms give each element its particular physical and chemical properties Atomic symbol: one or two letter chemical shorthand for each element . Common elements composing the body: Oxygen: component of both organic and inorganic molecules. Needed for the production of ATP Carbon: component of all organic compounds such as carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids Hydrogen: component of all organic compounds. As an ion it influences the pH Nitrogen: component of proteins and nucleic acids . Atoms are composed of 3 particles: Protons: + charged and weighs 1 atomic mass units (amu) Neutrons: no charge ad weighs 1 amu Electrons: - charged and have virtually no weight . Structure of atoms: (Fig. 2.1) o In a neutral atom # of protons= # of electrons o Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus o Chemists devise models of how atomic particles are put together: . Planetary model . Orbital model . Identifying elements: (Fig. 2.2) Identifying facts about an element include its atomic number, mass #, isotopes. And atomic weight Atomic #: number of protons (subscript of atomic symbol) Mass #: number of protons plus neutrons (superscript of atomic symbol) Isotopes: atoms that contain same # of protons but differ in the number of neutrons Atomic weight: average of mass numbers of all isotopes forms of an atom . Radioisotopes: isotopes that decompose to more stable forms Atom loses various subatomic particles As isotope decays, subatomic particles that are being given off release a little energy known as radioactivity All radioactivity can damage living tissue and cancer, but some types can be used to destroy localized tissue cancers . Molecules and compounds: Atoms chemically combine with other atoms to form molecules and compounds Molecule: two or more atoms bonded together Compound: specific molecule that has two or more different kinds of atoms bonded together such as glucose . Mixtures: (Fig. 2.4) Two or more components that are physically intermixed 3 types of mixtures: 1. Solutions: solute particles are very tiny 2. Colloids: solute particles are larger than the ones in a solution 3. Suspensions: solute particles are very large and might scatter light Solutions: Homogenous mixtures Solvent: substance present in greatest amount Solute: substance dissolved in solvent True solutions are usually transparent such as air and most solutions in body Concentration of true solutions: o 3 common ways to express concentrations: 1. % of solute in total solution 2. Mg/dl (milligrams per deciliter) . Ex. Normal blood fasting glucose levels are 80 mg/dl 3. Molarity (M): . The # of moles of solute/ liter of solvent . 1 mole of a compound= molecular weight in g . 1 mole of any substance contains 6.02x10^23 molecules of that substance called the Avogadro’s # Colloids: Aka Emulsions are heterogeneous mixtures Can see large solute particles in solution that do not settle out Some undergo solution to gel (sol-gel) transformations such as Jell-O Suspensions: Heterogeneous mixtures that contain large solutes that settle out Blood is a suspension because if left in a tube, the blood cell will settle out . Chemical bonds: Energy relationships between electrons of reacting atoms, they are not actual physical structures Electrons are involved in all chemical reactions and they determine whether a chemical rxn will take place and if so what type of chemical bond is formed . Role of electrons in chemical bonding: Electrons occupy in electron shells Each electron shell contains electrons that have a certain amount of kinetic energy and potential energy so shells are referred to as energy levels Shells can hold only a specific # of electrons and the first shell is filled fstst 1 shell: 2 electrons 2nd shell: 8 electrons 3 shell: 18 electrons Octet rule: atoms desire 8 electrons in their valence shell ( Fig. 2.5) This desire is the driving force behind chemical reactions Most atoms do not have full valence shells . Types of chemical bonds: 1. Ionic 2. Covalent 3. Hydrogen Ionic bonds: (Fig. 2.6 ab) Ions: atoms that have gained or lost electrons and become charged # of electrons do not equal # of protons Attraction of opposite charges results in an ionic bond Ionic bonds involve the transfer of valence shell electrons from one atom to another one One atom becomes an anion and the other one becomes a cation Most ionic compounds are salts Covalent bonds: ( Fig. 2.7a, b, and c) Formed by sharing two or more valence shell electrons between two atoms . Sharing 2 electrons single bond . Sharing 4 electrons double bond . Sharing 6 electrons triple bond 2 types of covalent bonds: 1. Polar 2. Nonpolar . Polar covalent bonds: unequal sharing of electrons between two atoms because atoms have different electron attracting abilities leading to unequal sharing such as water (Fig. 2.8a) . Nonpolar covalent bonds: equal sharing of electrons between atoms, electrically balanced such as carbon dioxide (Fig. 2.8b) .Note: atoms with higher electron attracting ability are electronegative and those with less are electropositive Hydrogen bonds: (Fig. 2.10a, and b) Attractive forces between electropositive hydrogens of one molecule and an electronegative atom of another molecule Common between dipoles (compounds/ molecules with two different charges) such as water Acts as intramolecular bonds, holding a large molecule in a 3D shape The high surface tension of water is a result of the combined strength of its H bonds . Chemical equations: Chemical reactions occur when chemical bonds are broken, formed, and rearranged Chemical reactions can be written in symbolic forms called chemical equations Chemical equations contain: 1. Reactants/ reagents 2. Products Compounds are represented as molecular formulas In chemical reactions, subscripts indicate how many atoms are joined by bonds, whereas prefix means # of not joined atoms Works Cited Lindsey, Jerri K., Katja Hoehn, and Elaine Nicpon Marieb. Human Anatomy & Physiology, 9th Edition Elaine N. Marieb, Katja Hoehn. Boston, MA: Pearson, 2013. Print.