Hist 1060 notes wk2
Hist 1060 notes wk2 history 1060
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Justin Larremore on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to history 1060 at University of North Texas taught by Kristin Bocchine in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see World History 1600 to Present in History at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
HIST 1060 notes week 2 Kangxi Emperor 16621722 Uprisings of the 3 feudatories generals rise against Manchu and are ousted from Government Basically, the generals responsible for bringing the Manchu into China try to take power back from them and are instead defeated and thrown out themselves began small expansions into Taiwan and Tibet Zunghar Mongols the nomadic thorn in Kangxi’s side, good warriors who were trying to build their own empire to the Northwest of China Yongzheng Emperor r. 17231735 Restructured financial system Manchu economy began to flourish allowing for military spending Established secret memorial system which was a way to stay informed of the lower levels and maintain power Starts looking to Tibet to expand into b/c of Zunghars Qianlong Emperor r. 17361795, d. 1799 Played many different parts to appeal to his different subjects and their various Religions Welleducated Confucian scholar to his Chinese subjects “future Buddha” to his Tibetan Buddhists Tried to be a Muslim wise man, but was unsuccessful Builds the Manchu Empire to its greatest extent The Ten Complete Victories Several wars fought that ended with complete Manchu supremacy Zunghar Wars final end to the Zunghar threat, wiped them out Tibet fought the Gurkhas, made them a tributary state Taiwan destroyed the pirate safe haven and subjugated the native population Vietnam tried to establish Chinese colonies Nine Pillars of the Qing (Need to know for Exam!!!) 1. Ethnic Balance Ethnic governing system Five People of the Qing: Manchuruling minority, lived separately, special legal status Mongols 2 to the Manchu Tibetan practiced a unique form of Buddhism Muslims two kinds, Uyghurs of Turkish descent and Hui (Chinese muslims) Han the Chinese people, largest majority, least significant politically and culturally 2. Mandate of Heaven Ideology Emperor can rule as long as he is blessed by Heaven The government had basic responsibilities to provide for the well being of its citizens in order to keep Mandate of Heaven Motivated the government to be good and helped prevent rebellions 3. Family Ideology (NeoConfucianism) Parallel concept of family and society, if families are in order so is society Fundamental importance of filial piety Family economy and inheritance were important to keep in the family 4. Separate Spheres for Genders Different standards for men and women Separated genders in society Han women especially had very low status Manchu women could do a lot on their own Different rules applied for different people groups 5. Civil Service Examination System A way to test education and ability of people to qualify for the government bureaucracy Many levels of tests Mainly rich people were the ones who qualified b/c it cost a lot of money to pay for education, this led to problems with inept government officials 6. Civil Administration Hierarchal levels of administration Censorship tests to root out corruption Advisors to the Emperor, bureaucrats, governors, local elites, etc. 7. Ritual and Religion Qi concept of living energy in and around everything (The Force) Yin and Yang balanced forces, not good and evil always, more order and chaos gods many different gods and various purposes limited religious freedom 8. Military Divided into 2 forces Bannerforces Hereditary system of enlisting Manchus and Mongols Initially very effective at maintaining order and winning Battles Green Standard Army Han armed forces Managed safety of nation and ordering people groups Much larger than the Bannerforces 9. Hydraulic Engineering Systems Qing were very good at using water Dams, irrigation, transportation, etc. Military would sometimes use a river to flood a besieged city Qing and Foreign Trade Silver Foreign trade was taxed by the Qing to gain silver Most revenue came from land taxes and salt monopolies Foreign trade was limited to the Port of Canton Jesuits Introduced science and technology from Europe to the Qing English East India Company British interests in Oriental trade increase British take over India, trade in the Indian ocean but are subjected to limits in Qing Canton Lord Macartney sent on a diplomatic mission directly to the Qianlong Emperor, had problems because the Qing viewed the British as tributary traders not equals Qing empire repeatedly denies trade access to Britain and other European nations into the 19 century Tokugawa Japan Catchup to 1500 not needed for test Shogunate feudal system with a Shogun as the ruler, Daimyo as scattered feudal lords and the Emperor as a weak figurehead Onin War (14671477) Civil war started by succession issues in the Shogunate, fought to exhaustion with no clear winner Sengoku Period (14671573) Japan’s Warring States Period Chaos amongst rulers and lords The old order is flipped and new people seize power and control New Daimyo have smaller domains but greater control over those domains Trade barriers expelled, encouraged trade with Europeans European Influences Portugal first Europeans to trade with Japan Japan had the silver that the Portuguese needed so they could trade with Qing Jesuits were welcomed in Japan b/c of their technology and science Guns introduced to Japan in the midst of its warring states Daimyo fought for control of trade to access more guns to beat their enemies in battle more easily Period of Unification (15731600 or 1615) 3 instrumental figures in Japanese unification Oda Nobunaga (15341582) Begins unification by doing away with Ashikaga Shogunate Opened trade to Portuguese more completely Attacked Buddhists by throwing the Jesuits at them Toyotomi Hideyoshi (15361598) Takes over after Oda dies Uses a land survey to tax people Great Sword Hunt of 1588 collected all the swords from ordinary people who were not samurai divided Japanese society into permanent social classes Tokugawa Ieyasu (15431616) Established the Tokugawa Shogunate at Edo, presentday Tokyo Finally created a strong, centralized power Characteristics of Rule Indirect Rule through Daimyo Divides the Daimyo into different groups of how loyal they are to Tokugawa and bestows land to them according to their importance Alternate Attendance maintained control of Daimyo through a hostage system semiIsolationists closed trade to Portuguese Opened 1 port to trade with the Dutch Japan liked the Dutch more than the Portuguese because they were not focused on missionary work by 1830, only connection to outside world was Dejima port More distinct social classes, Confucianlike hierarchy Tokugawa Economy th 17 century boom Government invested money in agricultural development Commercial farming started to become commonplace th th 18 mid 19 century, the economy stagnates cities start to suffer from famines b/c people are making cash crops more Daimyo in debt to merchants (who were a lower social class) Samurai very poor due to their govt. stipends not being adjusted to deal with inflation
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