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Week 3 Chapter 3 Notes

by: Briana Johnson

Week 3 Chapter 3 Notes SOC 1300 - DORSEY

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Briana Johnson

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Notes from both the book and the lectures of Patrica Dorsey in Soc 1300 FA2016 section 13887
SOC 1300
Patricia Dorsey
Class Notes
Introd to Soc, Dorsey, week3, chapternotes, 13887
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Briana Johnson on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 1300 - DORSEY at University of Houston taught by Patricia Dorsey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 88 views.

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Date Created: 09/11/16
Yellow highlight – class title and week notes information Blue highlight – titles and subheadings Green highlight – definitions or important terms/information Introduction to Sociology (SOC 13887) FA 2016: Patricia Dorsey WEEK 3 NOTES  Chapter 3: Social Interactions (Notes from Book and Lecture) Overview  Social interaction is the process by which people act and react in reaction to others being present  Status and Roles – Social position that one holds has expected behaviors (roles) o Status set – all statuses held at one time (Ex: student, daughter, sister, friend, cheerleader) o Types of status –  Ascribed : birth or involuntary statuses (race, class, etc.)  Achieved : Voluntary statuses (wife, student, etc.)  Dramaturgical Analysis – the process of using theater language to talk about social life o Erving Goffman (1959) o Presentation of self o Creating specifics o We are all actors on the stage o Trying to create/manipulate impressions o Successful impression management “whether or not an audience plays along”  Have you created a desired definition of the situation o Performance:  Costumes  Props  Script  Tone  Non-verbal communication  Stages and/or regions o Goffman said “the bathroom is a part of our backstage where we set up our presentation of self  A way that we avoid labels is through our cultural knowledge on what to do and when  An individual and their society influence one another continuously through history Developing a Sense of Self Socialization  Process by which we come to understand expectations, rules and norms of the society in which we live in Yellow highlight – class title and week notes information Blue highlight – titles and subheadings Green highlight – definitions or important terms/information  We all wonder about ourselves a lot  Social feedback that we receive throughout our existence helps us mold who were, what were good at, re we morally worthy  We existence through the eyes of other  Charles Horton Cooley o 1864 – 1929 o Looking-glass self o Symbolic interactionist o Believed that a person’s self-image was based on how  We imagine how we appear to others  We interpret the others reactions to us  We develop our self-image based on their reaction  Social Isolation – theory that interdependency is key to all life forms o Harlow’s experiment o Impact on Rhesus Monkeys  Harley’s Stanford Prison Study o Began this study to experiment the theory of social interaction o Prisoners in solitary confinement o Experienced negative psychological and physical symptoms o Experimenters had to end the six month experiment on day six because of the effect it was having on participants  George Herbert Mead o 1863 – 1931 o Symbolic Interaction o Coined “The Social Self”  Stages 1. Imitation (infants up to 3 years of age) o They are merely imitating what they see around them o Start to develop conversation precision 2. Play (3 to 6 years of age) o Pretend o Acting out what they want and/or positions of important people in their lives o Ex: playing house o Anticipating socialization o Copying tv roles 3. Games (older elementary) o Beginning to understand rules and roles o Thought process is beginning to flow o Begin to process roles in society 4. Generalized Other o Taking role of other o Understanding social norms o Social control, common sense o Golden rule “Do to others as you want done to you” Yellow highlight – class title and week notes information Blue highlight – titles and subheadings Green highlight – definitions or important terms/information  Self-personality, awareness, image  Not present at birth  Takes social experience in order to develop  Exchange of symbols (everything you see her, smell, touch)  Imagine others point of view (can we take on the role of the other)  “oops” is not a meaningless term; it is critical in generating a society of sustaining human interactions in an orderly way  Self – individual reflection on one’s own identity and social position The Looking­Glass Self   Spitz Orphanage Study o Lack of social contact and interaction impacted orphanage babies psychically, emotional, and mentally o Babies have a hard time surviving biologically without social stimuli o 40% of babies died within the first year of the observation  Without real contact with others, one’s health begins to fall apart  Looking-glass mirrors back to us the impressions we create to others  We all want to belong and make social connections Life’s a Stage  We all need approval to be  Christena Nippert Eng o Wallets and pocket books are toolkits for managing the multiple faces we show to others o Props – business cards, drug prescriptions, etc.  Eng found that different people think differently on what they want to share  The theory that “life is a stage” never stops and our circumstances keep shifting so we often identify ourselves by different things o African American – Race o Lawyer – Occupation o Wife – Home Status o Sister – Family Role o Giant’s Fan – Passion or hobby How Do We Make Sense of Our Worlds  In sociology, words do not necessarily have meaning unless you know the context in which they are being used  The same applies in regards to rules; you must understand when exactly they apply  Ethnomethodology – study of peoples methods  We can see peoples action in every conversation Yellow highlight – class title and week notes information Blue highlight – titles and subheadings Green highlight – definitions or important terms/information  Takes three tenths of a second before a conversationalist notices that nothing is happening  Repair – a way one of the speakers helpfully acts to safe guard the interaction  When someone lacks access to a conversational turn, they miss the opportunity for their opinions to count  Another method people use in social interaction is emotions  For sociologist, emotions are performances we arrange for specific purpose  Interaction Ritual Chain – o University of Pennsylvania sociologist Randall Collins o How people fit their threats and gestures into a script of calls and counter calls when arguing  People fit their response to the condition at hand  People change the situation that changes them  Max Atkinson – o British sociologist o Recorded speeches being made by British politicians at party rallies o Paid close attention to what the speaker was doing and how the audience reacted o The ability to work the crowd comes from knowing what people need to act together Self­Presentation in a Digital Age  New social media like texting and Facebook changes patterns of interaction  For example, when it comes to Facebook we arrange our profile to manipulate our presentation of self  Based on others response or lack or response, we alter our page accordingly  Deidre Boden – o Sociologist o Early researcher of the internet o Learned that a great deal of electronical communication involved the arrangements of face to face get togethers  When communicating electronically it is very easy to get confused about one another’s meaning  Can’t catch each other’s tones  Spend most of the time clarifying how they intended their words to be heard Interaction in Public  Our interaction strategies are altered when we communicate with strangers  Civil Inattention – ignoring each other to an appropriate degree although noticing the other is present  Georg Simmel o Great social thinker o German theorist Yellow highlight – class title and week notes information Blue highlight – titles and subheadings Green highlight – definitions or important terms/information o “Inattention is dense places make social life possible”  Mitchell Duneier o Ethnographer o Examined troubles between street people in New York City and those they bothered with request  Disaffiliate Gestures – signaling that you don’t want to continue a conversation through pauses and nonresponses  Interactional Vandalism – an offense that occurs but it is suitable  People also will put up with more from others depending on the kinds of statuses in okay and how individual identities are socially categorized What Matters to Us?  Significant Others – denote individuals close enough to us to have a strong capacity to motivate our behaviors o Doesn’t refer to a spouse in sociology; a significant other can be the relationship between a parent and child or even someone who always bring to parties  Reference Groups – referring whose social position and preferences makes them relevant to our sense of worth  Generalized Other – social control exercised by common sense understanding of what is appropriate in a specific time and place  We have unspoken knowledge on the “do’s and don’ts” of society  Socialization – the process by which we come to understand the expectations and norms of our groups as well as the various roles we transition into over the course of our lives  Culture – the substance of systems of beliefs and knowledge  Subcultures – set of individuals who share common preferences or understandings of specific aspects in the social world and also belong to a more vague group What Challenges Do We Face as we Move from One Social Context to Another    We are all in business to satisfy others  Role Conflict – were satisfying our parents that expect us to come home for our grandmas birthday but we are also satisfying our friends who need help moving that same day  Conflict comes because we can’t make everyone happy  “damned if I do, damned if I don’t”  Milgram Study – role conflict, trying to satisfy the experimenter while “hurting” another human  Status – a distinct social category that is set off from others and has associated with a set of expected behaviors and roles for individuals to assume  Deviants – people regarded as a problem by dominate members of society Yellow highlight – class title and week notes information Blue highlight – titles and subheadings Green highlight – definitions or important terms/information  Social Construction of Reality – the interactive process by which knowledge is produced in making it specific to a certain group or society  A problem with labels is that even if the label isn’t true, the individual often changes their behaviors to fit the label  Robert Merton (1949) – o Self-fulfilling prophecy o Something becomes true because people say it is true  UCSB professor Thomas Scheff studied how this works in a mental hospital (1999) o People who were called “crazy” often felt pressed by people around them to act “crazy”  Sometimes even our freedom depends on agreeing to the labels placed on us  David Rosenhan (1973) – o Sent researchers into mental hospitals for undercover research  The most important rules require human interpretation o Ex: first come first serve… however if a big celebrity came in it would be unrealistic for them to have to wait in line  Don Zimmerman (1970) – examined this theory at the welfare office o Those who had screaming children were attended to first no matter their position in line to keep everything running smoothly and their crying babies out of the office faster  What makes us component members of society is knowing what to do on particular occasions given what is expected of us  Garfinkel (1967) – o “judgmental dopes” o People who follow every single rule even in the wrong context then turn around and judge others o Lack of proper discretion Conformity Rules    How people press each other into one kind of action as opposed to another  The way people do or do not go along with social pressure  Soloman Asch (1955) – o Gets people to give an obvious wrong answer to an obvious and factual question o 37% of the time, participants gave continuously wrong answer as they were trying to conform with the group  A single ally strongly altered results  It’s easier to go against the world when you have at least one person in agreeance with you  Other people will harm others to conform with others


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