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EDF 3110 Chapter 4 Notes

by: Taylor Copeland

EDF 3110 Chapter 4 Notes EDF3110

Taylor Copeland
GPA 4.0
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About this Document

These notes cover the Chapter from start to finish
Human Growth and Development
Alisha Dickerson
Class Notes
Physical, development




Popular in Human Growth and Development

Popular in Humanities and Social Sciences

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Copeland on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EDF3110 at University of Florida taught by Alisha Dickerson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Human Growth and Development in Humanities and Social Sciences at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 09/11/16
EDF 3110 EDF 3110- Chapter 4 Sunday, September 11, 2016 5:09 PM PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT in INFANCY and TODDLERHOOD 1 Changes in Body Size and Muscle-Fat Makeup i Rather than making steady gains, infants and toddlers grow in little spurts. ii Early rise in 'baby fat"-which peaks at about 9 months- helps small infant maintain a constant body temperature iii Babies are not very muscular- strength and physical coordination is limited i Individual Group Differences i Children differ in weight, height, ethnicity, rate of physical growth ii Best calculation of child's physical maturity is SKELETAL AGE-a measure of bone development iii Girls experience fewer developmental problems than boys and have lower infant and child mortality rates ii Changes in Body Proportions i Cephalocaudal- "head to tail"- In prenatal period, head develops more rapidly than lower part of the body ii Proximodistal-"near to far"- From center of the body to outward extremeties iii BRAIN DEVELOPMENT-2 Vantage Points 1 Microscopic level of individual brain cells 2 Larger level of cerebral cortex, most complex brain structure and the one responsible for the highly developed intelligence of our species ii Development of Neurons- i Neurons- nerve cells that store and transmit information ii Synapses- tiny gaps between neurons iii Neurotransmitters- chemicals released by neurons to send messages iv Programmed cell death- Process needed in brain development- makes space for connective structures within brain v As neurons form connections, STIMULATION becomes vital to their survival vi Synaptic Pruning- Process which returns unneeded neurons at the moment to an uncommitted state so they can support future development vii Glial cells- makeup of 1/2 the brain- responsible for myelination which is the coating of neural fibers with an insulating fatty sheath. ii Neurobiological Methods- i Electroencephalogram- examining of brain-wave patterns ii Event-related potentials- detect general location of brain wave activity iii Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging- detects changes in blood flow and O2 metabolism throughout the brain magnetically iv Position Emission Tomography- x-ray photography v Near-infrared Spectroscopy- infrared light is beamed at regions of cerebral cortex ii Development of Cerebral Cortex i Regions of cerebral cortex- Frontal Lobe, Temporal Lobe, Parietal Lobe, Occipital Lobe ii Lateralization and Plasticity of the Cortex-cerebral Cortex has 2 Hemispheres 1 Lateralization- Specialization of each of the hemispheres 2 Brain Plasticity- High Plasticity=high capacity for learning The brain is more plastic in the first few year than it ever will be in the future a Sensitive Periods in Brain Development i Human Evidence: Victims of Deprived Early Environments- 1 If children are born with cataracts- the longer the surgery is postponed, the less complete the recovery in vision skills 2 Early prolonged institutionalization leads to a generalized decrease in activity in cerebral cortex 3 Experience-expectant brain growth- young brain's rapidly developing organization, which depends on ordinary experiences 4 Experience-dependent brain growth- additional growth and development throughout our lives b Changing States of Arousal- i Infant's changing arousal patterns are primarily affected by brain growth, but the social environment also plays a role. Periods of sleep and wakefulness become fewer but longer, increasingly conforming to a night-day schedule. Parents in Western nations try to get their babies to sleep through the night much earlier than parents throughout most of the world, who are more likely to sleep with their babies. b Influences on Early Physical Growth i Twin and adoption studies reveal that heredity contributes to body size and rate of physical growth ii Breastmilk is ideally suited to infants' growth needs. Breastfeeding protects against disease and prevents malnutrition and infant death. iii Marasmus/ Kwashiorkor- dietary diseases cased by malnutrition b Learning Capacities- i Classical Conditioning- based on the infant's ability to associate events that usually occur together in the everyday world ii Operant Conditioning- infant's act on the environment which increase the environment iii Habituation and Recovery- reveal that at birth, babies are attached to novelty b Motor Development- i Sequence of motor development- 1 Gross-motor development- control over actions that help infants get around in the environment, such as crawling, standing and walking 2 Fine-motor development- smaller movements such as reaching and grasping ii Motor Skills as Dynamic systems- 2 1 Dynamic systems theory of motor development- theory which states mastery of motor skills involves acquiring increasingly complex systems of action ii Fine-motor Development: Reaching and Grasping 1 Of all motor skill, reaching may play the greatest role in infant cognitive development b Perceptual Development- i Hearing- Speech perception- Analyzing Speech Stream- 1 Infants organize sounds into increasingly complex patterns and, as part of the perceptual narrowing effect, begin to "screen out" sounds not used in their native tongue by the middle of the first year. An impressive learning capacity enables babies to detect regular sound patterns, for which they will later learn meanings 2 Contrast sensitivity explains infants' early pattern preferences. Over time, babies discriminate increasingly complex, meaningful patterns. 3 Intermodal perception- combining information across sensory modalities. 4 Differentiation theory- infants actively search for invariant features of the environment- those that remain stable in a constantly changing perceptual world. 3


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