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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nozima Notetaker on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 1050 at Saint Louis University taught by Dr. Archer Joel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Intro to Philosophy in Philosophy at Saint Louis University.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
Week 3 notes Pojman p.529-540 Ethical relativism versus ethical objectivism. Ethics asks: what is the right thing to do? Subjective relativism answers: whatever you think is right. Cultural relativism: what is right depends on your context or culture. Ethnocentrism- the uncritical belief that in the inherent superiority of one’s own culture. Moral objectivism- the view that there are universal moral principles, valid for all people at all times and climes. o Author wants to argue that ethical relativism is a mistaken theory and that the cultural differences do not demonstrate that all ways of life are equally valid from a moral perspective. Ethical relativism is the theory that there are no universally valid moral principles; that all moral principles are valid relative to culture or individual choice. o Two types of relativism: Conventionalism Holds that moral principles are relative to the culture or society. Subjectivism Holds that individual choice determines the validity of moral principles. o 2 theses of relativism: diversity thesis: specifies that what is considered morally right and wrong varies from society to society, so hat there are no moral principles accepted by all societies. Also called cultural relativism: moral rules differ from society to society. A dependency thesis: Specifies that all moral principles derive their validity from cultural acceptance. Individual acts are right or wrong depending on the nature of society from which they emanate. o There are no unique universally valid moral principles, objective standards that apply to all people everywhere and at all times. Subjectivism treats individuals as billiard balls on a societal pool table where they meet only in radical collisions, each aiming from its own goal and striving to do in the other fellow first. Conventional ethical relativism- the view that there are no objective moral principles but that all valid moral principles are justified by virtue of their cultural acceptance- recognizes the social nature of morality. Absolutist believes that there are nonverridable moral principles that ought never to be violated. o One ought to never break a promise or tell a lie, no matter what. Objectivist need to posit any nonverridable principles, at least not in unqualified general form, and so not be an absolutist. o Objectivism is the view that moral principles have objective validity whether or not people recognize them as such; that is, moral rightness or wrongness does not depend on social approval but on independent considerations. Objectivism differs from absolutism in that it allows that all or many of its principles are overridable in given situations. 09/07/2016 Ethics- philosophical study of morality, that is, nature of good and evil, right and wrong. o Ex: Are there certain actions that are absolutely right and wrong depending on the culture? What is the nature of happiness? 09/09/2016 Moral relativism (know this word) o It’s a view that moral rightness and wrongness vary from society to society, or from person to person and that there are no absolute moral standards on all people at all times. o Whether there you do right or wrong is a matter of taste or depends on the culture (religious background). All actions are equally right or wrong Good and bad are relative to the situation or group of people. o Two types of moral relativism: Moral subjectivism: Moral values are relative to the person/individual. Everything right or wrong depends on person. Each person decides what is right or wrong. Moral conventionalism: Person cannot decide right or wrong but rather culture, society, religion decides for you. All cultures are right and there is nothing beyond them. Moral values are relative to societies and culture. o Question is whether everyone correct in their beliefs; whether moral codes that society adopt are right. o Motivations for believing in moral relativism: Tolerance If you are tolerant about other cultures, then you ought to say that they are correct. Lack of an ultimate judge Who is to say that they are wrong. Disbelief in God. Moral Subjectivism: o Against moral subjectivism: 1. It would imply that moral monsters are justified in their actions. 2.
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