Archaeology 102 Notes (PPCC)
Archaeology 102 Notes (PPCC) Arch 102
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This 119 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hope Grigsby on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Arch 102 at Pikes Peak Community College taught by Roche Lindsey in Summer 2011. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Classical Archaelogy in Archaeology at Pikes Peak Community College.
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Archaeology 4 subdisciplines of Anthropology 1. Cultural a. Applied i. Where anthropologists actually use their skills in the field b. Medical i. Study of how medicine affects the body ii. Es. Aspirin discovered in South America iii. Health – right height for the right weight; normal 1. Americans have a warped perspective on healthy (high blood pressure is normal) 2. Physical / Biological a. Forensics b. Primatolgy i. Study of primates c. Paleontology i. Study of the fossil record 1. Study of past life forms by looking at their remains/ fossils ii. Pompeii 1. City covered by a volcano 2. Ex where fossilization can happen almost instantaneously iii. Bones can tell us: 1. How we came to look the way we look 2. How we evolved iv. Study of our history in the fossil record 3. Linguistic a. The study of language b. Process of learning how language works i. mechanics c. linguists can walk into a culture where they have never heard any of a particular language and they can start mechanically putting it together from scratch START HERE 4. Archaeology study of people from the physical remains they leave behind employs more people than all the other disciplines combined o anywhere there is federal stimulus projects using federal money archaeologists have to look at the ground Protected by National Antiquities Act o Protects all archaeology within the federal realm Anything on federal ground is protected Anything that involves federal resources is protected Legal definition of time: [ as defined by CRM] o 50 years for something to be considered a fossil/ remains Might seem redundant if you lived through that time period o Would prefer it to be pushed back to 75100 years o At some point you have to have a balance of resource allotment a. Cultural Resource Management (CRM) [applied] i. Business of Archaeology ii. Workers usually have a college education (BA degree) b. Historic Archaeology i. When there is a historical written account ii. Reasonably consistent documentation iii. Terminology depends on part of the world c. Prehistoric Archaeology i. When there is no written history ii. Terminology depends on part of the world American Indians traded things [a European trait] over a 100 years before settlers came o Traded beads o Blankets o Food o Knives d. “ProtoHistoric” i. Transition into a historic record ii. a branch of study concerned with the transition period between prehistory and the earliest recorded history e. Artifacts i. Geofact a rock, bone, shell, or the like that has been modified by natural processes to appear to look like an artifact ii. Part of a human being or something that has been manipulated by a human being (stone knife) f. Material Culture i. the physical objects created by a culture; the buildings, tools, and other artifacts created by the members of a society ii. objects that are distinctive to a specific time and people iii. diagnostic artifacts – where one uses the materials from a culture to determine things about a culture iv. g. Site i. Location ii. Scene of activity iii. Federal and state regulates who can do what on what plot of land iv. Archaeologists answer to state instead of government in most cases v. 12 artifacts = isolate(d) [case] vi. 3+ artifacts = site 1. Because there is likely more objects underneath the surface vii. Objects can be buried at different depths h. Thomas Jefferson i. 1 of the first people who helped excavate mound builders ii. 1 person to use modern techniques to excavate a site iii. Kept track of everything 3dimensionally 1. Goal is to be able to replicate the dig’s layers in a sand box i. Finite Resources i. Once an artifact is removed it can never be put back just perfectly as it originally was ii. Ex. Sweetwater County 1. Discovered more because of industrial actions j. Archaeogeolists and geomorphologists i. Archaeogeolists – focus on hard rocks 1. Fossil remains 2. Rocks used to make tools ii. Geomorphologists – focus on soil sample 1. How a landscape shifts 2. (*)Focus on soil formations k. Faunal analysis i. Study of animals from archaeological sites ii. Biological nonhuman portion iii. Can also involve botanical remains Paleolithic – study of old rocks Evolution and Human Equality – Stephen J. Gould Race – competition between individuals usually speaking or etc. Have culture: o Because we are social beings o Environmental adaptations o Working as units o Result of expanded brain o Man has to have culture – cannot deal without it o Gestation period and life span are usually directly proportional a. Environmental Adaptations a. Upright walking i. We walk on 2 legs instead of 4 b. Enlarged brain power i. Man must have culture b. Bergman’s Rule a. Colder the climate the proportionally larger the body i. Eskimos keep everything closer to the furnace c. Allen’s Rule a. Where the warmer the climate the proportionately bigger the appendages will be i. Kenyan runners d. Skin Color a. Melanin in skin b. Color differs by how close one is to the sun = how much protection is needed c. All people started out brown i. Changed because they lived in a jungle ii. Over generations people became whiter d. Clinal – gradual change e. Nose Shape a. Is an environmental adaptation because of warmth and humidity b. Nose = humidifier f. Sickle Cell a. an abnormal red blood cell having an elongated, crescentlike shape due to the presence of an abnormal hemoglobin b. people with this trait cannot get malaria c. live in different altitudes d. trait originated from: anywhere there was malaria e. Ex. Black Africans Evolution: o Usually slow but can be fast o Speed of change directly relates to environmental changes Out of Africa (don’t need to memorize it) People have been out of African for 70,000 – 80,000 years a. End of the “Age of Reptiles” (250 MYBP) b. First Mammals (200 MYBP) c. Primates (65 MYBP) d. Bipedalism (hominids) (4MYBP) e. Stone Tools (about 2 MYBP) f. Homo Erectus – leaves Africa about 1.2 MYPB (Eurasia) g. Archaic Homo Sapiens (Neanderthal – Java “Man”) proto humans (5000,000 BP) h. Anatomically modern humans (120,000 – 150,000 YBP) a. Out of Africa (80,000 YBP) b. Genetic separation (60,000 YPB) i. Going North – skin color – environmental adaptations ii. Australia – deep sea navigation i. Fully modern humans (30,000 – 40,000 YBP) – sophisticated art – changes in lithics technology “Man the Tool User” Not only in man Can be seen in: o Monkeys o Otters o Birds o insects short gestation period o one spends a lot of time learning o trade off for a larger head means that women cannot carry out all 20 months of gestation o humans are born half formed live in packs/ tribes/ groups Bonobo monkeys are considered to have some similar behavioral traits to humans Natural Selection – genetic change or the change in frequencies of traits within a population due to differential reproductive success of individuals Stasis Non movement Punctuated equilibrium – long period of stasis before a sudden change occurs Fixity of species Refer to back of handout for diagrams and examples Rock chipping/ forming is the worlds’ oldest profession Stone working: Flintknapping o Chert – term used by Americans o Begin with a cobble o When it was hit it was an tested cobble o Hit 3 times = core o Knapping is the shaping of flint, chert, obsidian or other Conchoidal fracture stone through the process of lithic reduction to manufacture stone tools, strikers for flintlock firearms, or to produce flatfaced stones for building or facing walls, and flushwork decoration o The process of chipping and shaping flint to give it sharp edges useful for scraping and cutting o Archaeologists use debatoge to determine how something was created Flake o Flakes help archaeologists determine what kind of tool was created o a usually broad, often irregular piece of stone struck from a larger core and sometimes retouched to form a flake tool Platform Bulb of energy Pressure and percussion Soft hammer (baton) Hard hammer Abrader o Used to set up platform o Abrasive o to wear off or down by scraping or rubbing Hunter and Gathers have long healthy lives lives are shorter because of lack of exercise they get more exercise than most people work a 34 hour work day o includes child care o building house o hunting o gathering ate: o nuts o fruits o berries o wide range of diet o modern people/ culture limits their diet a bit o very diverse diet protect each other from animals warfare among hunters and gathers is extremely rare height varies o very tall o direct response to diet highly mobile (in general) only have sedentary hunters and gathers if food comes to them (marine) in free time they: o bond o express their culture (art, music, storytelling) o Bambuti storytelling is very important with Bambuti age highest status: Shaman (woman in this case) don’t have children / sterile Film: Evolution and Human Equality ANTH 102 Lecture Notes Day 2 Scarre Chapter 2: African Origins Paleontology or Archaeology? o Both Darwin and Natural Selection o Coined term Natural Selection o Sickle Cell o Natural selective trait o Adaptation to environmental traits o Nose = humidifiers o Distribution o Body types o Traits come about from mutation o Survival of the fittest (Spencer) Concept that there are too many species for any environment and those with desirable traits are those that are able to reproduce How these concepts have evolved o Genetic mutation o Gradualism gradual, rather than slow and steady accumulation of small changes over a long period of time finally produces major changes in the descendants of a species o Punctuated equilibrium periods of more rapid, dramatic evolution over shorter periods of little change (stasis) Attributes of our relatives and ancestry o Bipedalism – the upright walking on 2 legs o Brain size and weight ratios – shorter gestation period and premature birth (gestation period = 20 mo) Use culture to overcome the serious disability of the premature birth Have complex language Exception is sea mammals o Stone tools – o Genetic similarities with contemporary great apes – Which species? Bonobo monkey Humans are 98.5% similar genetically What is the estimated time frame for a genetic separation from chimps? (the book forgot Bonobos) 68 years Maybe pushed back because of new primate evidence New species has been added What is the percentage of genetic similarity? . o Anatomical similarities Hands Opposable thumbs Manipulative Dexterous Able to grasp Opposable thumbs Great toes Teeth Tells people about the diet Brain Greater intelligence Common in only apes and humans Emerged gradually within the last 65 million years o Differences Central Nervous system Bipedalism Length of the limbs Serious changes in size between males and females Males and females are close to the same size in modern day Gorilla – diamorphic o Males are bigger than females o So, did we evolve from apes and chimpanzees? No we did not Different species We have a common ancestor with chimpanzees but we did not evolve from them We talked about human environmental adaptations in the last class. What environmental conditions in Africa might have influenced bipedalism? Not living in forest so much Living on plains because the forests were disappearing Deforestation 48 million years ago Then carrying things comes into pay SemiSavannah adaptation o Australopithecus afarensis Lucy Had bigger jaw Big molars for grinding o Grazing primate Footprints Fossilized in Volcanic Ash Female, male and baby Male footprint is larger Depicts family?? Has not lost opposable big toe o ½ way between boreal and modern Few Species One is probably descendant from the grass forms Evolve into Homo species Considered to be definite human species Takes us into Stone Age Going back further……the first primates seemed to have appeared about 65,000,000 (65mybp). What happened then that may have created a niche for early primates? o Gracile Australopithecus forms about 4mybp Bipedal – how do we tell? Skeletal structure Skull and vertebrae had to change formation Remains Wearing of specific places on bodies (hips/ pelvis) Location of the spinal connection to skull changes Design of the feet o Lose ability to grip things Lose effectiveness to live in trees New design helps humans walk forward Sexual dimorphism – where male is bigger than female Lucy (A. afarensis) and Laetoli Arboreal – where one lives in trees Robust forms: Bipedal Lived during time when species of genus Homo was prevalent Brain was 40% that of a humans Large Cheeked toothed o Early Homo species Early African Stone Age/Lower Paleolithic Larger brains stone tools production2.4mybp Are there disadvantages to a larger brain? o Homo habilistraditionally recognized as the first tools maker Believed to be hunters and scavengers (opportunists) No real weaponry Brain is larger than Early Homo species Proportionately long arms and short legs Oldowan technology – flake and core technology Characterized by simple core forms (parent piece of rock from which flakes are detached) created from river worn cobbles or angular blocks of stone Debitage the sharpedged angular flakes and fragments detached from such cores Founded by the Leakey family o Lewis – politician o Mary – scientist o Created classification system studied in lecture 1 o Lewis got a lot of credit for Mary’s work o Coined term Oldowan industry Based off their work in Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania Take a flake off a rock and make it into a sharp object o Homo erectus Very different from Homo habilis very successful –from start of the Pleistocene (ice age) (1.8 million years ago) to Holocene (postIce Age) (1015 million years ago) dominant during this time period until after exodus of modern humans out of Africa 1.8 million years old H. heidelbergensis Has weaponry Engaged in group/ social activities Perhaps beginnings of culture More group coherence Where premature births slowly became more and more common Acheulean technologymore complex, even biface tools and tools with more specialized function Can other primates make these tools? Are there problems in thinking Australopithecus species originated early stone technologies? Not many characteristics are human characteristics only Graph of Technology Discussion: Lumpers and splitters Oldowan technologies o Important researchers MARY and Louis Leakey (hint) Richard Leakey (son) Donald Johanson o Distribution? o Food procurement Used bipedal locomotion, tool manufacture and use and increased intelligence to form an adaption involving efficient hunting of small and large mammals Large brain is responsible for our complex technologies, food procurement strategies, symbolic and linguistic behavior, culture o Diet Plant foods formed bulk of food intake Animal foods formed a smaller portion of food intake o Microwear analysis of stone tools Where one can duplicate an old stone tool artifact through trial and error Problem with tools from Homo erectus Not much left because it is believed that most of the tools were made of organic material Can we use an analogy from other primates as far as diet? Teeth o What other factors are there in looking at diet? stable isotope analysis looking at the chemical components in the bones themselves; look to see if specific foods show up in analysis problem with early fossils actual materials have been replaced by other materials o Can we do the same for social organization? Site characteristics features? Erectus o Hunter and gatherer subsistence pattern o See tools used as weapons Not seen in habalis o See animal bones Cut marks Green (Fresh) Bone fractures Break differently than dry bones o Use of and ability to make fire Around fire hearth a multitude of activities take place Rituals Story telling Cooking Communication Clothes making Distributions Patterns of activities that usually happen in a hunter and gatherer site Near fire is little artifacts Big artifacts are farther away from fire hearth Habalis Not controlled use No distinct patterns of use Art (Ritual, Language) Made aesthetically beyond function Usually for stories/ lessons o SPECIFICALLY religion Art revolves around religion o Look at early western art Basket o Can have a function o Can put hours and hours of work into it to make it beautiful o Beautiful beyond function Religion (Ritual, Language) Communication is a rudimentary base Cannot communicate thought of God without complex communication Complex communication – the ability to communicate abstract thought Homo Erectus o Astrology?? o Unable to be proved o Reconstructing environments – (pp.55) Able to be done by studies of surrounding environment Look for plants = determine diet Pollen Direct relaying of information about the plants within an environment Microsample If adaptation is dependent on environment then one must know the entire environment and its history Also have macrobotanical remains Get things like seed pods Roots Helps determine diet as well as environment o Dating early sites – (pp. 7475) Potassiumargon dating Potassium is replaced by argon at a half life of 2 million years Can only date volcanic material Gives a relative date Used for geology not for archaeology o Too old Dates a geologic level Footprints The ash can be directly dated Carbon dating – only good for 50,000 years; carbon disintegrates Volcanic ash soil called bentonite FederScience and Pseudoscience, Epistemology Quick Start Guide: o Where is the claim presented? BBC o Best History Channel Discovery National geographic (although this tends to be better than some) o Focus on selling things o Entertainment o No opinion o No critique of the information o Own Archaeologists PBS Nova o 1012 archaeologists o Not owned o Want different POV o Who is making the claim? Journalist People who are getting paid to make the claim (owned by a company) o What is the “Evidence”? Are their opposing viewpoints to the evidence that is presented Are there multiple claims of evidence to support their claim Are experts or other experts consulted (peer review)? Are there multiple lines of evidence to support the claim? i.e. o the linguistic evidence and the archaeological evidence that each support the other regarding Athebaskin/ Na Dene migrations to the Southwest U.S. Is there adequate information presented to make an informed decision including, if possible, varying opinions? Glottochronology – one of the most scientific pursuits; can take 2 languages and compare and contrast them and by measuring the similarities and differences determine how long ago the languages separated o Athebaskin/ Na Dene Navajo Appear in southwest 6700 years ago Apache Tlinget was same group and split have a very distinct frequency of 3 molars (dentition thing) no skeletons o refer to back page of notes for chart o Avonlea Known for distinct pottery Very distinct material culture Created 1 arrow point on plains st 1 group to consistently use bow and arrow Lose track of them about 700 years abo 2000 BP or 0 BCE Early Apache (highly suggested) o Dismal River 700 years ago In Southern Wyoming and Colorado Connected this directly to the Apache Aka Apache o Sopris Around 6700 years ago May have been a short lived Navajo population Chapter 1 – He doesn’t tell us the name of the insurance company! o Feder gets Alien policy for $20 o The Morning of the Magicians Realized it was a bunch of crap when he reached the archaeology article Prompted him to write this book o Why did Feder find flaws in the archaeological hypotheses the authors presented and not those in other fields? o Why does Feder say that archaeology has suffered because of its popularity? Because people are so interested in it The less people time people take to check their facts o Reasons for misrepresentation of archaeological findings: MONEY! Fame Nationalism (i.e. Nazi Germany) Religion (this one is easy to find on the History Channel) Our “romantic” past – here we idealize Native Americans SNAFUpeople are nuts Why he wrote this book…..Dr. Church and I have long threatened to teach a class about misrepresentation of archaeology in the mainstream media. Feder: Chapter 2, Epistemology o Epistemology – how you know what you know and why o What’s the tallest mountain on earth? Above sea level = Everest Below Sea level = Mauna Kea (Hawaii) o How about Connecticut? How do you know? Because we were told it o Oldest city in the Americas is Monte Verde In Chile People traveled down from Alaska down Ice Free Corridor Ended in Montana Oldest sites should be in Montana, Wyoming, Colorado Have not discovered anything older than Monte Verde About 12,500 years old o Wave of Migration theory Started with agriculture Aka wave of diffusion Transfer of technology over time Migration of hunters and gathers Speed 1 mile/ year o Oldest sites in America? Pennsylvania – 11,800 BP Colorado – 11,400 BP o What is the best way to “know” something? First hand? First hand May not be the best because everyone is not particularly observant Second hand? You heard me blast National Geographic a while ago!!! Blasphemy!@!!%&*@$ We will see a horrid National Geo film Thursday o SCIENCE Processes and knowledge Brings us a step closer to the truth 1. There is a real and knowable universe. 2. Immutable laws – do not change a. “Science demands rigorous testing and retesting, and it commonly rejects and discards previous conclusions about the world……” Question: As you learned in school, how (or from where) were the Americas inhabited? 1. The Universe operates according to understandable laws. Does this mean we do, or will, understand them all? Not at all. As one particular scientist put it, “To completely understand the way our present brain functions we need …um…….bigger brains.”(not a direct quote) 2. The laws are immutable. The law of gravity is the same today as when Galileo th performed his experiments in the 17 century. We will not give uniformitarianism, as defined in the previous class, a new definition today. 3. The laws can be understood. Some of them we will never know, they may be complicated, but they can be understood. Reasoning or logic: o Inductive: Reasoning from specifics to generalities (from the inside out?) If these beads take 350 hours to manufacture…… o Deductive: Reasoning from generalities to specifics. There was a land bridge between Siberia and Alaska at the end of the Pleistocene…. Scientific Method o Form a question o Then form a hypothesis o Discern methodology o Test and observe o Theory – a hypothesis that has been tested and retested and not proven wrong The basics of the scientific method: o Through observation a hypothesis is formed as an attempt to explain why certain phenomena occur: How were the holes drilled in these shell beads 700 years ago? Hypothesis: with cactus spines. How do I test this (Research Design)? By drilling holes in shell with various materials and see which material most likely was used for this activity. If the holes drilled with cactus spines most resemble those in the beads, then I have created evidence to support this hypothesis. Drill holes. Test Analyze data. Determine conclusions (ALL OF THEM): Do the conclusions support the hypothesis? (be careful of cause and effect) List results If there is enough evidence to support your hypothesis it may be called a theory. When does this become “fact”? o a truth known by actual experience or observation Let’s revisit the Bering Strait “Theory” Assignment: GO TO the LIBRARY – find an article in Plains Anthropologist or American Antiquity printed BEFORE 1980 that is of interest to you and read said article. Write a short synopsis (1 doublespaced paragraph) of the article. Go to the Plains Anthropologist website on the internet. Click on “Policy and Style”. Scroll down and click on “Style Guide”. Go to “References Cited” (page 7/12 or 301). Below your paragraph give a formal citation EXACTLY as they dictate for a publication in Plains Anthropologist with the right number of spaces between elements, etc. Turn this in next class. Film: Paleo… Early African Researchers Chris Stringer Donald Johanson Richard Leaky Mary Louis Milfred Wolpof ANTH 102 Lecture Notes Week Week 3 Scarre Chapter 3 – Hominin Dispersals in the Old World Homo egaster let’s lump –Homo erectus – you can discuss intricacies of these debates in advanced courses – let’s go with H. erectus like critters o Examples/ NEED TO KNOW: Australopithicus afarensis – lucy Homo habalis – first tool maker; early hominiin Homo erectus – Gaster – early form of homo erectus Early teens o Want to lump because they are not different enough Differences are accounted for though environmental advances GREATER DIFFERENCES IN African Populations Different environmental extremes Gene flow o At about 1.8mybp Homo Turkana Boy True human? Mature = 6 ft. tall? Arm/leg length proportional to humans (less apelike) 880 900 cc brain (1350 ave. modern) Low browed o Bone that protrudes over the eyes o Shelf over the eyes o Becomes less and less over time External nose o outward projection & downward positioned nostrils o similar to modern humans o nose = humidifier Lower frontal pragmatism o Protrusion of the mouth o Gorilla like Narrowed pelvis Tooth eruption suggest 11 or 12 years old o Based off modern day humans o Teeth may not have grown in at the same rate for this group of people Little sexual dimorphism (similar to modern populations) o Size difference between males and females o Homo Erectus Larger brains Larger cognitive ability Seen though tool making Used Acheulean technology o Acheulean Technology: Purposefully shaped cores into tools including BIFACIAL hand axes These core tools have some variation and are referred to as axes, picks, and cleavers Made some weaponry Put sharp rocks on sticks o By 1.5 mybp we find these early Homo out of Africa into southern Asia (these finds referred to as H. erectus rather than H. egaster) o Homo erectus leaves Africa 1.5 million years ago More diverse DNA Because of isolation of the populations 2 species cannot reproduce offspring that is viable (unable to reproduce) o Technologies vary some in Eurasia H. erectus populations. In the north and east hand axes are not prevalent although, the technologies are really very similar. Protohumans, Archaic Homo sapiens, Neanderthal, etc. o Here, in continuation of our lumping, we will stick with Archaic Homo sapiens….Dr, Wynn can make fun of this in your later courses….. o about 500,000 brains get larger (900+ cc early to 1400+cc in Neanderthals) o With this cognitive expansion we get refined technologies (more refined hand axe technology and later Mousterian (Neanderthal) technologies. o Mousterian technology is what many lithic technologists consider true biface production….thin bifaces produced from flakes rather than core reduction. o Neanderthal European ancient homo Has great big brain capacity Different than most homo population Could be environmental “sharp cookie” Excellent flintknappers st About 500,000 years ago – 1 known Neanderthals In Southern Asia, Europe, Africa Extinct around 25,000 years ago (about same for Homo erectus) No evidence of warfare Technology called Lusteria Didn’t really change until 5075,000 years ago Gets more sophisticated the more towards humanity it comes Hypothesis o May be learned from moderns o Trade o Potential conflict o Could have developed it independently Stress Specialization brought on by communities/ environmental niches o May have developed cognitively Biologically o Gene flow between them and moderns o KNOW BEGINNING AND ENDING OF ICE AGE AND DIFFERENT TIME PERIODS Did not have technology to live in/ near ice Religion Must have a complex language Had distinct habitation areas Distinction between male and female roles Complex society Hints of art Burials Prevention of hungry predators Some have grave goods associated for them o Perhaps some ideology Grave in Germany o Huge density of flower pollen o Filled with grave goods o Modern day humans may have evolved later from homo erectus o Imbuti and Bushman of the Kalahari are considered to be one the most genetically diverse peoples o Split of Human species/ genetically: [tree] o No longer see traits of H. erectus and homo after 30,000 o Other technologies Fire H. erectus o Believed to have made it by 1.5 million years ago o Capable of making fire o Most likely had this tech when they left Africa Art….probably limited until modern humans o Diet and hunting Lithic technologies logically imply more reliance on meat Hunters Most likely group hunted Archaic Homo sapiens produced points likely used for animal procurement and some sites strongly suggest communal hunting activities of some sort o As mentioned in the first class, anatomically modern human appear somewhere around 195,000bp. Were they alone? o Late dates on H. erectus….30,000 bp or so (Neanderthal has similar late dates) Theoretical Methodology: o W.W. Taylor Wrote an article saying that archeology needed to be more systematic Advocated use of scientific method Ignored 19301940s o Scientific method not used until 1960s o Lewis Binford Could write really well while he was married Started repeating W.W. Taylor’s thoughts on the scientific method and its application to field work Louder and more persistent Dabbled in cultural anthropology (*) Processualism the study of social structures and cultures by analyzing and comparing their processes and methodologies, esp. this type of study used in archaeology and anthropology Modernism o “Man the Hunter” Conference A book came out of this conference Advocates use of scientific method 3 levels one can attack in the scientific process Low Range Theory: o observations and interpretations from fieldwork and the lab. There usually involved artifacts, stratigraphy, or the relationship of elements in a site Middle Range Theory: o interpretation of humans and animal behaviors, past environmental conditions, etc., based on the information provided by the data (artifacts, activity areas, geomorphology, etc.) from a site or series of sites. Information can include learning from experimental archaeology, ethnoarchaeology, and taphonomic studies o economics High Range Theory: o big picture archaeologywhy did humans develop agriculture? How did people think? What was their ideology or religion? These interpretations are much more risky and controversial o why people do the things they do Paradigmsa theoretical framework for explaining the world Processualismscientific objectivityattempts to learn regularities across cultures through scientific analysis. The focus is on the group o make it science as much as possible o science comes from us – very western mode of thinking Postprocessualismrejects scientific inquiry as subjective and views archaeology as political. Focuses on the individual and advocates ALL interpretations as valid. This is a much more humanistic approach. o Corresponding is postmodernism o Advocated the need for more perspectives on a specific point o Ex. Ian Hodder Cultural Materialisminfluenced by Marvin Harris and Carl Marx emphasizes the importance of material factors in the interpretation of cultureenvironment, population, technology, etc. These factors will affect forms of institutions and even ideologies the culture will develop. Most famous archaeologists o Frison Went to school with Binford o Binford Went to school with Frison o Hodder Teacher studied under him Whether you adhere to processualism or postprocessualism or, more likely, a combination thereof, if you want to grant or other money to do an archaeological project you will need to follow the scientific model of research design. Feder: Chapter 3 – Anatomy of an Archaeological Hoax Ah! …planting artifacts ….Japan, Wyoming, for fun….for….er…..well Japan o Fujimara Found ancient archaeological sites Planted artifacts Wanted to give Japan an ancient history Took artifacts from main land The Cardiff Giant o “Remember, in the nineteenth century the literal truth of the Bible was believed by more than just a small minority of zealous fundamentalists.” o Did it to prove a point and for money o Practical joke of sorts Chapter 4 – Piltdown o Wanted to prove brains came first before locomotion o Big skull Modern human Jaw section that looks strikingly ape like Missing connector pieces Destroyed back of skull so one would not know where the spinal cord connected to o Was a jaw of an orangutan o Hoax somewhat a product of times…….would it work now? Will not work now because of new technologies Reasons for the hoax? Money Humor o In what ways is this hoax similar to the artifact planting in Japan? o Feder, referring to Neanderthal genetics states, “shows that they were genetically quite distinct from modern humans…………..were not our immediate ancestors but evolutionary cousins”. o Does this preclude interbreeding? The mitochondria shows about 3x more variation than found among modern human populations….even the Irish No Modern day humans come from a very limited ancestral stock ANTH 102 Lecture Notes Week 4 Scarre: Chapter 4 – The Rise of Modern Humans Let’s skip all the early middle, late early, middle early, middle middle periods and say, “It appears anatomically modern humans (AMH) appear about 195,000 bp.” This means folks, for all intents and purposes, physically just like us. Climate: o Still the Pleistocene…..there are warmer and colder fluctuations (known as glacial maximums and interglacial periods, but in general, it’s cold). o Takes about 8000 years for glaciers to melt o Reached modern day ocean levels 5000 years ago Out of Africa / Mitochondria Eve Theory (s) o Out of Africa It appears this takes place in Africa and, sometime later, radiates out of Africa Geneticists suggest we all have a common female ancestor Geneticists seriously support this theory o Mitochondria Eve Theory We can trace our ancestry back to one female Multiregional Theory o is the idea that different regional populations evolved independently from H. erectus o This argument suggests this would account for the differences in various human populations, but there has consistently been enough gene flow between groups to keep us the same species o Archaeologically the oldest modern or nearmodern proportioned remains have been found in Africa o Milfred Wolpoff Big multiregional guy o Chris Stringer Oldest site outside of Africa is 60,000 years old (as of today) Physical attributes of anatomically modern humans o Skullflat face o vertical forehead o rounded occipital region (back of head) Comparatively long limbs, and overall more gracile than the recent ancestral forms or contemporary similar forms. While the verdict might be still out on the 195,000 bp date I gave earlier, certainly by 120,000130,000 bp specimens are full anatomically modern. After 4050,000 bp technology changes with anatomically modern humans (AMH) includes a more diverse and standardized tool kit. Tools are more task specific and include points, scrapers, burins, awls, spoke shaves, etc. Bone tools are also utilized. Earlier AMH tool kits are very similar to Neanderthal, although demonstrating more skill in flaking. Interestingly, contemporary assemblages that seemingly are Neanderthal productions also seem to exhibit more skill in production that their earlier assemblages. (see p. 142) Broad spectrum economies including fish, fowl, and a large array of mammal and plant resources that vary in a plethora of different environmental settings…..we are more versatile in exploitation. Art?....ocher….beads and other portable art…… Hunters or scavengers? Key Site: Klasies River Cave, South Africa Out of Africa….again o Remember that simple tree of modern human variation? o Geneticists suggest the split of “some Africans and everyone else” did not take place until about 80,000 bp (leaving Africa?). o However, the earliest definite occupation outside of Africa by AMH found thus far is no earlier than 60,000 bp. MAP page 128……some room for notes below Migrations went BOOM after 60,000 bp 12,500 = Monte Verde Klaises River Caves – South Africa; early Hominin site More broad spectrum learning brain adaption in atomically modern humans o More sufficient in living, learning how to live, etc Many people do not believe we became fully modern until 3040,000 years ago No real sophisticated art until 3040,000 years ago o The disappearance of other species occurs around this same time frame Cognitive Revolution – terminology of the transition of periods; interim time between 2 periods Australia occupied by 45,000 bp maybe…earlier……importance?.... MAP page 154 Fully Modern Humans ? around 40,000 bp…….why? o Evidence: Tools get a lot more complex….. Aurignation, Gravettian, Solutrian, etc. complex blade tech Contrasting the previous almost complete lack of art, suddenly there are masterpieces…portable utilitarian items commonly are now artistic Patterning of activities in sites suggest more complex social Organization o Other technologies such as textiles and bone tools (net hunting by 30,000 bp…remember the implications?) o Northern adaptations include hunting mega fauna (30,000 BP) SITE: Dolni Vestonice archaeologist Olga Soffer o studied assemblage mammoth bones were found also found various other mammals discovered they used braided hair nets to catch RABBITS Bow and arrow by Solurian (southern Europe)?.....around 15,000 bp Survey o State differences o Federal – o Specific site types – Gatecliff o Knowing the basics of how the people of the area were making a living – Steward’s seasonal round of the Shoshone. sampling bais Sampling – The plan for selecting a sample, including the type of sample element, the sampling frame, sample size, and method of selection Statistical – systematic Extracting samples at evenly spaced periods or in fixed quantities random A sample drawn at random from a population, each member of it having an equal or other specified chance of inclusion. This sampling technique is based on a totally random selection of sample units to be investigated, which each unit having an equal chance of being selected stratified random – random configuration of soil full coverage – What is a site? 3 or more artifacts in a given location Diagnostic artifact: o Pottery o Something that can identify a people or a time Types of site o Kill site Artifacts Processing killing o Burial o Campsite Optimal sites are places that are above water where you can see everything around you o Pick sites that are far from water More things are better preserved o Best preservation can be seen in caves and overhangs Patterns of peoples are based on animal migration patterns People are the most protected in o Caves o Valleys People go to places that are low and filled with materials needed to fuel a fire o Asparagus was considered a cure all plant in Europe in the spring time Each band is made up of 3050 people o In spring time these people divide into nuclear family groups and they go up the mountain near rivers Groups come together to trade: o knowledge o People Each band is exogamous India is one of the only modern day places that practices endogamy o Food Like greens Fruit From trees Exploited in early fall Meat Hunt for most of it in the fall Dry it in masses Use pamikin process o Jewelry o tools artifacts/ weapons needed for gathering o needles o sticks for honey o nut crackers o baskets o nets Varies state to state o States control cultural resources o Three artifacts Flakes Tin cans A tool and another artifact An archaeological feature Fire hearth Structure or foundation(stone circle, fence line, etc.) Burial Rock art panel Seasonal Round Distribution of sites on a landscape Great Plains and “High” Plains Another example Projectile points Manos and metates Grinding stones Mutates is surface grinder Indians chose to live in the middle lands because there is timber above and animals below How one finds food sources Remote Sensing – the science of gathering data on an object or area from a considerable distance, as with radar or infrared photography, to observe the earth or a heavenly body Satellite imagery – images taken from satellites orbiting the earth Infrared photography – Magnatromity – Soil resistivity – Ground penetrating radar – GISGeographical Information Systems?
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