AnS214-Week 3- Lectures Wed-Fri
AnS214-Week 3- Lectures Wed-Fri AnS 214
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Spiegel on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AnS 214 at Iowa State University taught by Dr. Adur in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Domestic Animal Physiology in Animal Science at Iowa State University.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
Chapter Two: Respiratory System Breathing does many things including: 1. Supplies oxygen to the body and disposes of carbon dioxide 2. Dissipates heat from the body 3. Helps water evaporate Main processes of respiration ❏ There are 4 main processes: 1. Pulmonary ventilation 2. External Respiration 3. Transportation of Gases 4. Internal Respiration ① Pulmonary Ventilation The muscle most involved in this process is the diaphragm All pulmonary ventilation is is breathing in and out → inspiration: breathing in → expiration: breathing out ② External Respiration Exchanges of gas between the environment and the body ③ Transportation of Gases Oxygen is transported in the blood 2 different ways: a. Carried in the plasma as dissolved gas b. Most oxygen is carried by the hemoglobin located in the red blood cells There are 2 sites of gas exchange: a. Between the tissues and blood of the body b. In the lungs The mechanism for gas exchange is simple diffusion ④ Internal Respiration The exchange of gasses between the cells and blood Functional Anatomy in Respiration Two Zone: 1. Conducting Zone 2. Respiratory Zone The Conduction Zone Includes all of the main organs that are not molecular → from the Nose all the way to the Bronchioles Conducts gas exchange The Respiratory Zone The actual site of gas exchange → from the Lungs to the Alveoli Air Filtration ❏ Cells from the conducting zone send air to the stratified epithelium ❏ Cilia helps move mucus to dampen the air so the alveoli does not dry out Warming and Humidification ❏ Body temperature helps warm the air that is inhaled to at least 37 degrees celsius ❏ Warm air holds more moisture which is beneficial to the alveoli Structures of the Upper Respiratory Tract: Conducting Zone ❏ The Nose/ Nasal Cavity Passage of inhaled air Warms the inhaled air Moistens the air with mucus for the cilia → acts as a protective coating Olfactory organs for smell and pheromones detections ❏ The Paranasal Sinuses Helps project our voices Moistens the inhaled air Makes the skull less heavy Regulates pressure Acts as a shock absorbance ❏ The Pharynx and Larynx Controls the passage of air and food → larynx: vocalizations → pharynx: passage of air and food to the esophagus That is why you cannot swallow and breathe at the same time ❏ The Trachea, Bronchus and Bronchioles C shaped cartilage rings keep the trachea erect The trachea produces mucus, warms/humidifies air The bronchial tree: → includes the bronchi and bronchioles → less cartilage, more smooth muscle → cilia aids in the movement of mucus The Lower Respiratory Tract: Respiratory Zone ❏ What is its function? exchanges gas between the blood and the alveoli and sends it to the tissues and cells throughout the entire body Structures 1. Lungs composed of air spaces surrounded by stroma a. What is Stroma? elastic connective tissue 2 organs paired that maximize all the space in the thoracic cavity of the body Have distinct lobes 2. Alveoli structural and functional unit Surrounded by fine elastic fibers Contains open pores that do 2 things: a. Connects adjacent alveoli b. Equalizes air pressure in the lungs Houses alveolar macrophages that keep alveolar surfaces sterilized
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