The Chemistry Life
The Chemistry Life BIO 1120-01
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by keaffaber.3 on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 1120-01 at Wright State University taught by Professor Dan E. Krane in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Cells and Genes in Biology at Wright State University.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
The Chemistry of Life Professor Krane 09-01-2016 The Chemistry of Life What we considered to be described as the actual process of “living” can be reduced to a set of chemical reactions Living things organize and coordinate those chemical reactions in ways that non-living things do not Elements 92 elements exist, only 25 at most are important for living things Oxygen 65, Carbon 18.5, hydrogen 9.5, and nitrogen 3.3 are the four main elements our bodies need to survive- 96.3% Calcium1.5, Phosphorus1.0, Potassium0.4, Sulfur0.3 – 99.0% Sodium-0.2, Chlorine0.2, Magnesium0.1- 100% Subatomic Particles Protons o Positive charge associated with them o Really small o Weigh the same as a neutron o Both protons and neutrons can be found packed tightly in the center of an atom aka the nucleus Neutrons o No electrical charge- neutral o Really small o Weighs 1.7 x 10^-24 g Electrons o Weight- 1/2000 the mass of a proton or neutron o Negative charge associated with an electron o For every proton there is an electron orbiting it to balance the charge Atoms Fundamental unit of an element Cannot be divided any further and keep the chemical characteristics of that element Atoms are mostly empty space The number of protons in an atom’s nucleus determine the atomic number Atomic Weight- the total number of its protons and neutrons To determine the number of neutrons is an atom, subtract the atomic number from the atomic mass. Isotopes All elements have the same number of protons The change in the number of neutrons cause an isotope to be formed Isotopes- an element with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons Radioisotopes (radioactive-isotopes) are useful in modern biology because cells use them normally in their chemical reactions but when radioisotopes decay their location can be detected by the high-energy particles that they give off Energy Def: Ability to do work The further the electron is from the nucleus the more energy they have o Kinetic vs. Potential Kinetic energy- energy of motion (momentum) Potential energy- potential to have kinetic energy o Electron Orbitals The further the electron is from the nucleus the more potential energy they have Packets of energy, or photons, can be parceled out Light + electron = an electron in a higher orbital Electrons release light as they move from a higher orbital to a lower orbital Quantum- the amount of energy required for the transition from a higher orbital to a lower orbital Orbitals are the three-dimensional space in which an electron spends 90% of its time o Valences Orbital levels - nothing beyond level 2 orbitals 1s, 2s, 2p What determines the chemical activity of an orbital is what is going on in the outer most orbital of an atom Chemical Bonds Nature can’t stand a separation of charge Nature really seems to be hung up on the idea that the outer most shell of an atom must be completely filled up or completely empty o Covalent Strongest of all chemical bonds Electrons are shared between the valences of two or more atoms The valence of atom is the number of unpaired electrons in its outermost orbital and represents its bonding capacity. The shape and size of compounds are governed by the valences of the atoms that comprise it Valence plays very important roles in the chemistry of life The higher the atom’s affinity for electrons, the higher its electronegativity o Ionic Don’t involve the sharing of electrons Largely just electrostatic interactions Cations – positively charged atoms/molecules Anions – negatively charged atoms/molecules Hydrogen Hydrogen bond occurs when the slight positive charge of a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one electronegative atom Basis for most interactions between molecules No electrons are actually shared and the resulting bonds are therefore not as strong as covalent bonds Water is an excellent solvent due to its abiliy to interact with both positively and negatively charged molecules Allows water molecules to “stick together” and is responsible for water’s capillary action and surface tension Water has a high heat capacity
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