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Organic Chemistry 1 Week 1 and 2 Notes

by: Jernelle John

Organic Chemistry 1 Week 1 and 2 Notes CHEM 231

Marketplace > University of Maryland > Chemistry > CHEM 231 > Organic Chemistry 1 Week 1 and 2 Notes
Jernelle John
GPA 3.5
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About this Document

These are my class/discussion notes from week one and two.
Organic Chemistry 1
Dr. Monique Koppel
Class Notes
Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Organic Chem, Science




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jernelle John on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 231 at University of Maryland taught by Dr. Monique Koppel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 153 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Maryland.


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Date Created: 09/11/16
Monday, September 12, y Week 1 and 2 Notes Ch.1 ­ Aufbau Principle­ orbitals fill from lowest to highest energy level ­ Pauli Principle­ orbitals can only contain two electrons each ­ Hund’s Rule­ all orbitals of the same energy level must have one electron before any  orbital could add another electron ­ ionization potential­ the energy that it takes to remove an electron molecule ­ Electronegative­ the degree of an atom’s attraction towards another atom ­ Covalent bonds­ sharing of electrons • polar covalent bonds­ the unequal sharing of electrons ­ between 0.5 to 1.9 = polar ­ less than 0.5 = non­polar ­ more than 1.9 = ionic bond ­ How to draw Lewis Structure • determine the number of valance electrons by summing the number of valance  electrons of all atoms apart of the compound • determine the arrangement of atoms through an experimental procedure • bond the atoms and add lone pairs so that each atom has an octet exception:  ­ Boron and Aluminum often have an incomplete octet ­ Formal Charge = the number of valance electrons ­ (number of lone pairs + 1/2 the  number of bonds) 1 Monday, September 12, y ­ Molecular Orbital Theory­ used to calculate the energy and shape of molecular  orbitals • combine atomic orbitals of the atoms apart of a compound • arrange from lowest to highest energy levels • use the same principles as atomic orbital (Aufbau, Pauli, Hund) • ground state­ at lowest energy • excited state­ state other than ground state • ionic bond­ bond of metal and non­metal • Valance Bond Theory­ overlap of orbitals ­ single bond­ a sigma bond ­ double bond­ a sigma bond and a pi bond ­ triple bond­ a sigma bond and two pi bonds ­ Exception to Octet Rule • row three elements and down can have expanded octets (more the eight electrons) because of the d orbital ­ Not all Resonance Structures are Equal­ Priorities from Most Important to Least  Important • Full Valance Shell • Negative Charge on the most electronegative atom • Least (+) and (­) signs ­ Sigma Bonds and Pi Bonds occupy hybrid orbitals ­ Single bonds are longer than double bonds are longer than triple bonds • single bonds require more space (sp ) hybridization 2 Monday, September 12, y • the shorter the bond, the stronger it is ­ Resonance • electrons from double bonds and lone pairs can move if the adjacent group can  accept it • all electrons that participate in resonance are in a p orbital Week 2 Notes ( Ch. 4) ­ Acid Base Reactions • Arrhenius definition (Not commonly used) ­ acid­ a substance that can dissolve in water to produce H or H O+  + 3 ­ base­ a substance that can dissolve in water to produce OH ­ • Brønsted­Lowry definition (More commonly used) + ­ acid­ a proton (H ) donor which creates a conjugate base ­ base­ a proton acceptor which ­  +  creates a conjugate acid Cl  (conjugate base) + H 3 (conjugate acid) ­ ex. HCl (acid) +H O2(base) ­ water can act as an acid or a base • A base with two receptor sites will accept the electron at its more stable site ­ delocalization of the negative charge (resonance) is more stable is more stable  than a structure without resonance • Double bonds (pi bond and sigma bond) use electrons to accept protons ­ pi bonds serve as electron acceptor (base) • equilibrium constant­ measure the strength of an acid 3 Monday, September 12, y ­  + ­ ex. for HA + H O 2  + H O 3 • [H O ][A ] / [HA][H 0] 3 2 • the concentration of water does not change very much; therefore we can take  water out of the equation to find the acid dissociation constant • Acid Dissociation Constant (K ) which is the same as K[H O] a 2 ­ K a [H O3][A] / [HA] • pK =a­log K10 a ­ the pKa value is used to determine the strength of acids ­ the larger the pKa value, the weaker the acid ­ the weaker the acid, the stronger the conjugate base ­ the larger the pKa value, the stronger the conjugate base ­ if the pKa value is negative than most molecules of the acid are dissociated in  water • in an acid­base reaction equilibrium always favors stronger acids and bases to  make weaker conjugate acids and bases ­ Hybridization • any structure that can be hybridized to a lower hybridization state due to resonance should be ­ ex. Nitrogen is connected to three single bonds and contains a lone pair (sp   3 orbital). If an orbital can accept the lone pair on Nitrogen using resonance to  make it an sp  orbital than when asked on a test what is the hybridization of  2 Nitrogen, put the lower hybridization state (sp )! 2 4


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