Human Sexuality, Week two notes, First half of chapter 2
Human Sexuality, Week two notes, First half of chapter 2 HD 84411
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Wileman on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HD 84411 at Virginia Tech - Thomas E. Cook Counseling Center Psychology Internship taught by Blanchard, Victoria in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Human Development at Virginia Tech - Thomas E. Cook Counseling Center Psychology Internship.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
Chapter 2: Understanding Human Sexuality: Research and Theories Theories: Assumptions, principals, “abstractions” that determine how we are approached scientific questions Psychoanalytic Theory o Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) revolutionized the study of sexuality. Many of his ideas are not used today, however his influence lives on Libido- energy generated by sexual instinct (more powerful) Thanatos- aggressiveness motivated o Theory of Personality : id, ego, superego Small children have id (seeks pleasure with no concern for others) 2 year old ego balances id 5 year old superego holds both societal and parental values (adds more restrictions) o Theory of Psychosexual Development: Basic personality formed by age 6 based on resolution of psychosexual stages Erogenous zone- parts of the body particularly sensitive to touch and are associated to sex Stages Age Fixation 1. Oral 18 months chewing, smoking 2. Anal toilet training cleanliness 3. Phallic 3-6 years Attraction to sexes 4. Genital 6-12 years Erotica o Invented the concept of the “unconscious” Neuroses were produced by unconscious sexual conflict Behavioral Theory o Behavior is learned; we are born as blank slates o Operant conditioning (B.F. Skinner) Reinforcements: Associates a pleasant behavior with positive stimuli Punishment: associated an unpleasant behavior with aversive stimuli o Behavior Modification: to change or modify unwanted behavior Not concerned with the organs of the behavior Social Learning Theory o Albert Bandura added cognitive theory to behaviorism o Behavior is influenced by both external (reward and punishment) and internal (feelings, thoughts, and beliefs) Imitation and identification play a role in our internal experiences. Peer pressure, expectations from TV, family, and music Cognitive Theory o Behavior and personality results from how we interpret the world and events around us o Feelign, thoughts, and interpretations drive behavior “The brain is the largest sex organ” “We feel what we think we feel” Humanistic or Person- Centered Theory o Self-actualization: We learn who we are and what our place is in the world and try to be the best we can become (fulfillment) o Unconditional positive regard: acceptance of another without restrictions Biological Theory o Sexual orientation, behavior, and functioning are controlled by genetics, not mental or social forces o Emphasize physiological process such as hormones Evolutionary Theory o Considers the whole physiological changes occur in an entire species over time o The “fittest” pass on their genes o Orgasms were created to increase the rate of sex and the probability of offspring o Men can have casual sex because they have expendable sperm. Women need to protect what they create only once a month. Sociological Theory o Social institutions influence societies’ rule (values/norms/customs/laws) about sexual expression Social institutions: family, religion, economy, medicine, law, media, ect. o Sexual expressions varies across society over time Feminist Theory o Sexuality is socially constructed based on power, which historically has been held by men o Sexuality used by white, middle upper class, heterosexist men to maintain power over less dominant groups o Sexual dominance is maintained by acts of aggression such as rape, sexual abuse, sexual harassment, pornography, and prostitution. o “what about sexual gives a man an erection” Gives less attraction to female organism Queer Theory o Holds concern for woman’s and gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transsexual rights o Studies need to examine how a variety of sexualities are constructed and to abandon various categories (homosexual/heterosexuals) o Sexual categories are cultural constructions that limit and restrain.