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Biology 354, Week 3 Notes

by: Danielle Garrison

Biology 354, Week 3 Notes Biology 354

Marketplace > Iowa State University > Biology > Biology 354 > Biology 354 Week 3 Notes
Danielle Garrison

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About this Document

Week 3 notes include notes on hormones, neurobiology, and behavior.
Animal behavior
Toth, A.
Class Notes
Biology, 354, animal, behaivor, neurobiology, Hormones
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Garrison on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 354 at Iowa State University taught by Toth, A. in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Animal behavior in Biology at Iowa State University.


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Date Created: 09/11/16
Neurobiology and Behavior (Chapter 3) Hormones  Do invertebrates have hormones – YES  Hormones and behavioral development in honey bees o Queen – 2-10 days of age o Worker – 11-20 days of age o Forger – 21—35 days of age (old age)  Juvenile hormone – insets o First discovered insect hormone o Very potent with effects on development, reproduction, and behavior o Correlated with behavioral development o Bees:  Nurses/queens – low JH  Foragers – high JH  Allatectomy – removal of corpus allatum (source of JH)  Behavior after surgery  CA bees (removed) foraged later  Hormone replacement – feeding removed CA bees in caused them to return to normal foraging behavior o Replacement JH hormone back into bees Neurobiology  Nervous System: o CNS (Central Nervous System) – brain and spinal cord o PNS (Peripheral Nervous System) – nerves connect to effectors (muscles)  Sensory systems use sensory cells to collect info from environment and send it by nerves to brain  Brain – concentration of neurons at front end of animal o Vertebrates – homologous regions  Vertebrates and invertebrates – structurally different o Arthropod and vertebrate CNS don’t have homologous regions  Do have homologous genes controlling development of neurons and also homologous chemicals acting in nervous system (NS)  Neurons o Types  Neuron – basic cellular units of NS that send and receive electrical impulses  Glia – cells found in NS, provide physical support to neurons but don’t send electrical impulses  Some provide support and wrap axons in “fatty” myelin sheath o Speed transmission of electrical impulse o Structure  Axons – generally 1 per neuron; long extensions of neurons, send electrical impulses to other neurons  Dendrites – receive input from axons of other neurons; many per neuron  Circuit – interconnected set of neurons with effector  Can be simple (5 neurons) or extremely huge and complex o Neurotransmitters – chemical messengers, communicate signals between neurons  Bind to its receptor on ion channel  Example – dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine o Synapse – terminal between neurons  Nervous impulse o Neuron “fires” when its electrical potential leads to chain reaction of ions entering axon/dendrite o Transmits signal rapidly down neuron o Stimulus has to be strong enough to overcome nerve cell’s threshold  If weak, no response  If strong, more than 1 neuron responding – stronger response  All or none response  Effector o Nervous impulse reaches target, effector, causes behavioral response  Brain imaging – way to study brain activity in live subjects o fMRI – strong magnetic signal when brain region is active  in humans, looked at:  Emotions, sex, dreams, recognizing faces, effects of eating on mood, fear and courage (snake study)  Male meadow voles – better at water mazes – than prairie meadow voles  Bigger, usually better (not just bigger, more connected) o Large axons transmit signal faster o More connections – faster/stronger response o Brain region larger, usually means superior function  Neural Plasticity – ability of brains and neural pathways to change in response to experience Genetics and Behavior (Chapter 4)  Many traits heritable o Phenotype – observable traits o Genotype – genetic makeup of organism o Heritability – measure of proportion of variance in trait that’s due to genetic variance, rather than environmental; measurable  Behavioral heritable? YES  Nature – how much genetics (genes)  Nurture – how much environmental (parental)  Field behavioral genetics – dark early history o Could family you’re born into effect behavior? Can gender? Can race? – YES TO ALL o Behavioral genetics – slower to develop than genetics  Mendelian genetics o Gregor Mendel – discovered discrete units of inheritance (genes), associated with certain traits in mid 1800s  Breed peas – discovered simple relationships between certain genes and traits  Polygenic traits o Most traits – polygenic – many genes underlying them  Some genes have large and some have small effects o Example – eye color  Most traits their genetic basis is complex o 1 gene does NOT equal 1 behavior  No “gene for” a behavior o Most genes influence multiple traits o Heredity and environment both influence genome  Genome not blueprint, flexible  Genes can change their activity (expression) in response to environment  Many traits “quantitative” o Doesn’t follow into distinct category, varies along continuous scale o Genetic underpinning of behavioral trait – which is it?  Mendelian – 1 gene with 2 alternative alleles – alternative states  Polygenic – result of many genes together o Trait loci mapping (QTL)  Uses genetic makers (short sequence DNA) to locate general location on chromosomes (loci) of alleles affecting trait  Can ask: how many loci (and genes they contain) affect behavior, and how strong the effect of each is  Done by breeding together 2 strains differing in trait, score markers and train in offspring and look for correlations  Example: fear and anxiety in mice “open field behavior”  Found on all 19 autosomal (nonsex) chromosomes, as well as X chromosomes in mice – fear and anxiety. Polygenic trait  If mendelian/discrete trait, what would results look like? o There won’t be little pieces, it would mostly be 1 large piece  Central dogma of biology – DNA codes for RNA, which codes for protein  How does DNA affect behavior? o DNA doesn’t directly code for behavior o Either active “expressed” or inactive  Active DNA – expressed into mRNA, codes for proteins  Proteins can affect behavior in many ways – as hormones, receptors, muscles, etc. o Gene expression – level of activity of gene (reflecting in amount of mRNA and protein products made)  2 ways genes can affect phenotypes: o 1. Heritable genetic effect: different DNA sequences (alleles of gene) can produce different proteins o 2. Gene expression effect: some gene can be “expressed” different ways  Some DNA, different levels of RNA/protein, different behavior o Example: magets, fruit flies  “Rovers” – larvae that consistently move a lot on their food  “Sitters” – larvae that consistently move a little on their food  Heritable genetic effect with foraging gene  Rovers have different allele of foraging gene that sitters o FORs – sitters; FORr – rovers  “Candidate gene” approach o Genes can have conserved functions over 100s of millions of years of evolution


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