HORT September 7 and 9
HORT September 7 and 9 HORT 3440
Popular in Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Notetaker on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HORT 3440 at University of Georgia taught by James Affolter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
September 7 Gardening Cultural Requirements for Herbs in Home Gardens o Good drainage Herbs need good drainage with air and water Soil prep: local soils are heavy clays Need to add sand or composted bark to improve texture and structure Position and prune plants to keep air moving through them Discourages diseases Our hot humid summers breed fungal diseases o Soil pH and Light pH: our soils are acidic Meed to increase pH to 6.0-7.5 Granulated or pelletized lime is good for this Have soil test done Sunlight: most medicinal herbs need at least 6 hours of sun a day Late afternoon direst sun is tough in summer but the plants at State Botanical Garden (SBG) can tolerate it Morning sun is best Some species require more shade (ginseng, goldenseal) Mulch Use: Suppresses weeds, conserves water, moderates temperature, reduces erosion and soil splash, is attractive Types: Pine straw, bark, plastic, organic products Keep mulch couple inches away from base of plant stems o Water and nutrition Irrigation: provide occasional deep watering once or twice a week during summer Many herbs are from dry climates Best to avoid wetting foliage Fertilization: feed lightly 2-3 times during growing season Use balanced fertilizer (10-10-10) or even lower nitrogen (5-0-10) o Ratios of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium Over-fertilization results in soft growth open to insects, drought, disease o Spent rest of class showing pictures from SBG and his home garden September 9 **Review sheet on ELC Metabilites Primary vs Secondary Metabolites in Plants o Carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids are essential to life and called primary metabolites Occur in major metabolic pathways of plants (respiration, photosynthesis, cell division) o Plants make other compounds via metabolic pathways Secondary metabolites Diverse functions and often source of medicinal/culinary value Many plant toxins belong to this group People thought secondary metabolites were waste products of metabolism; now know they are important ecologically in plants o Attract pollinators and fruit dispersers o Inhibit bacterial and fungal properties o Deter grazing animals and insects o Inhibit growth of competing plants Secondary Metabolites o Terpenes Hydrocarbons (carbon and hydrogen) Range a lot in size and structure Essential oils, resins, polyterpenes Essential Oils: provide flavor and aroma Resins: pharm, varnishes, rosin, insecticides, chewing gum, turpentine, perfumes, oil-based plants Polyterpenes: elastic compounds, natural rubber form Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber Tree) Taxol: Pacific Yew Carotenoid pigments: give red, orange, yellow pigments found in plants and usually called primary metabolites; gives tomato red color o Phenolics All have 1+ aromatic benzene rings with 1+ OH groups Large and diverse category of compounds, range from small to large complex macromolecule Flavanoids, tannins, lignin Natural browning of cut surfaces (Apples and potatoes) caused by phenolic with oxygen Some essential oils are phenolic compounds (clove oil and bergamot) Flavonoids: water soluble pigments called anthocyanins found in red cabbage and many flower petals Tannins: stains, dyes, inks, tanning agents for leather; discourage herbivores; important flavoring in tea, red wine, and fruits Lignin: primary metabolite in cell wall, gives wood hardness and strength, made of thousands of phenolic molecules Urushiol: poison ivy/ oak that causes itchy and blistering rash Tetrahydrocannabinol: THC, phenolic resin, active ingredient in marijuana o Glycosides Have sugar with non-sugar molecule When metabolized, sugar splits off and non-sugar component becomes physiologically active Non-sugar components are usually a terpene, steroid (a lipid), or phenolic compound Saponins: combo of sugar and steroid Soapy later with water, bitter, gastric upsets, detergents and shampoos Yams important food crops, vinces that make tubers rich in starch and protein, saponins in yams are a steroid that is used in human sex hormones and cortisone Birth control pills based on diosgenin form yams; inhibit ovulation Synthetics largely replaced them now in birth control pills Cardiac Glycosides: similar to steroid, affect heartbeat, fatal in large doses, digitoxin from foxglove Cyanogenic glycosides: realse HCN when metabolized (cyanide) th Cassava 6 most imp food in world, tubers can cause death by cyanide poisoning if not processed to remove toxins o Alkaloids Nitrogen, synthesized from amino acids Mammalian physiology (central nervous system) effects Like neurotransmitters in brain Stimulants: caffeine,, cocaine, ephedrine (ephedra) Depressants: morphine and codeine Hallucinogenic: Tropane, mescaline, ergot alkaloids Poisons: nicotine; in high doses Mustard Seed: release volatile sulphur-containing compounds when cells are damaged is reason the delayed reaction when we chew mustard seeds; mustard and onion family o Isothiocynates have sulphur o Substrate compound and enzyme are stored in differernt compartments within cell o When cell is broken the substrate compound and enzyme are brought in contact and produce a spicy flavor compound called isothiocyanate o Pungent flavor in onion gamily due to volatile sulphur compounds released when tissue cut and substrate/enzyme in contact Allinase, alliin, allicin Alliin with allinase to form allicin; peak from allin; a=gone when turns to allicin o Garlic active ingredient is allicin; the lacrimatory factor (causes tears) in onion Cutting onion under water will wash away some of crying factor Cutting cold will retard enzyme activity After digestions suplhur in blood stream into lungs and diffuse into exhaled garlic= garlic breath Summary of major secondary metabolites on slide 29 Taste Test o Ability to taste certain chemical compounds is genetically determined o Depends on alleles in your DNA o Taste Strips: White= control Blue= PTC Yellow= Thiourea Pink= Sodium Benzoate PTC o Ability to taste is based on chromosome 7 o PAV allele is the dominant allele and AVI is recessive; affect PTC gene 2 PAV= strong/ bitter taste 1 PAV= mild taste 2 AVI= no taste o Should expect about 70% of people to be able to taste it Almost 100% of Native Americans can taste it Thiourea o Genetic variation influencing taste perception is unknown o Majority of people are tasters or mild tasters Sodium benzoate o Often used as food preservative o Discourages mold growth o Varied taste responses to this Quinine water: some taste it and some can’t o Some think it’s sweet and some think it’s bitter Key Takeaway: we all respond differently to different chemical stimuli in the environment o This is due to genetics o Reason why pharmaceutical drugs affect people in different ways o Reason why different people differ in their response to phytochemicals and herbal medicines
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