Psychology, Week 4 Notes
Psychology, Week 4 Notes PSYC 2010 - 001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelli Daniels on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2010 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Jennifer Daniels in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Introduction into Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
Week 4 | Psychology Glial Cells Cells that provide support and nutritional benefits in the nervous system Keeps neurons in their proper places Destroy and eliminate dead neurons and then often replace those neurons Help to make sure that signals do not get crossed. Neurons Sensory neurons: carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the CNS. Motor neurons: carry outgoing information from the CNS to muscles and glands. Interneurons connect the two neurons. The Nervous System Nervous system: consists of all the nerve cells. It is the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication system. Central Nervous System (CNS): the brain and spinal cord. 2 o Interconnected neurons form networks in the brain. These networks are complex and modify with growth and experience. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body. o Somatic Nervous System: the division of the PNS that controls the body’s skeletal muscles; things we think about doing. o Autonomic Nerbous System: part of the PNS that controls the glands and other muscles; things done automatically. Sympathetic Nervous System: division of the ANS that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations. Parasympathetic Nervous System: division of the ANS that calms the body observing its energy; calms the body. Nerves: consist of neural “cables” containing many axons. They are part of the peripherl nervous system and connect muscles, glands, and sense organs to the central nervous system. The Brain: Older Brain Structures Brainstem: said to be the oldest part of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells and enters the skill. It is responsible for automatic survival functions. Medulla Oblongata: The point where the spinal cord enters the skull and joins with the brain. o Entirely controls the heart rate o Largely controls breathing, swallowing, and digestion. Also, sneezing, coughing, and vomiting. o Neurons cross over to the other side of the brain here as well. o Even the slightest damage in a critical region of the medulla can cause death. 3 Pons: relay station, containing neurons that pass signals from one part of the brain to another. o Fine-tunes motor messages o Processes some sensory information, especially visual information o Helps control respiration o Helps influence facial expression Thalamus: the brain’s sensory switchboard. It directs messages to the sensory areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla. o Located just beneath the cerebral cortex at about eye level in the center of the brain Reticular Activating System (RAS): essential to the regulation of sleep, wakefulness, arousal, and even attention. o Vital functions as heart rate and breathing o Also linked to sleep cycles Cerebellum: controls bodily coordination, balance, and muscle tone. o Two wrinkled hemispheres covered by an outer cortex. o The primary function is to coordinate and regulate motor movements. o Damage results in awkward, jerky, uncoordinated movements and may affect speech. The Limbic System Doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebrum, associated with emotions such as fear, aggression, and drives for food and sex. It includes the hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland. Amygdala: consists of two lima bean-sized neural clusters linked to the emotions of fear and anger. Hypothalamus: lies below (hypo) the thalamus. It directs several maintenance activities like eating, drinking, body 4 temperature, and control of emotions. It helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. Hippocampus: memory formation o Problems result in deficits in memory for facts but not in memory for courses of action. o May also be involved in the regulation of some reproductive characteristics like female sexual behavior the onset of puberty and the release of pituitary hormones. Structure of the Cortex o Each brain hemisphere is divided into four lobes that are separated by prominent fissures. These lobes are the frontal lobe (forehead), parietal lobe (top to rear head), occipital lobe (back head) and temporal lobe (side head). Four Lobes of the Brain Occipital Lobe: back of head, responds to visual stimuli Temporal Lobe: Above the ears, involved in hearing, language processing, memory, and ability to process information about the face. Frontal Lobe: behind the forehead, control of voluntary muscles, intelligence, and personality o Phineas Gage o Emotionally shallow, distractible, unaware of social mores o Prefrontal cortex: higher cognitive functions such as planning, reasoning, self-control, monitors and organizes thinking. Parietal Lobe: top and rear of head, registers spatial location, attention, and motor control. 5
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