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math 101

by: Mya Notetaker

math 101 Econ 1051

Mya Notetaker

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General Economics
George Chikhladze,Martha Steffens
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mya Notetaker on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Econ 1051 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by George Chikhladze,Martha Steffens in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 09/11/16
Sociology INTRODUCTION Introductory ▯ Sociology is the scientific study of social life Sociology ▯ Sociology studies the relationship between individuals and social structures ▯ Sociology includes micro-level analyses focusing Edward Brent on individuals, such as studies of small groups and attitude change ▯ Sociology includes macro-level analyses Copyright © 2006 focusing on social structures, such as studies of political and economic systems August Comte C. Wright Mills (1798-1857) ▯ Born in France and heavily influenced by the French Revolution (1789) ▯ The sociological imagination is ▯ Comte coined the term sociology the capacity for individuals to understand the relationship ▯ Comte proposed applying the between their individual lives scientific methods used in the natural and broad social forces that sciences to the social sciences influence them. ▯ He called this approach Positivism The Sociological Imagination RECURRENT THEMES ▯ The intersection of history and biography ▯ Social Control ▯ The Social Construction of Reality ▯ The relationship between private troubles and public issues ▯ Inequality ▯ Social Structure ▯ Our lives are not purely personal, but are lived ▯ Knowledge out in the context of social circumstances that ▯ Social Change affect us all 1 SOCIAL THEORY CLASSIC SOCIOLOGISTS Sociology has several theories that we use to explain these recurrent themes Marx Weber Structural-Functional Theory Durkheim Conflict Theory Mead Interactionist Theory THEME: SOCIAL CONTROL SOCIAL CONTROL (Continued) ▯ How is social control maintained in a society? ▯For example… ▯ How powerful is social control? ▯Would you let someone take pictures of you naked? HOW FAR WOULD YOU GO IN RESPONSE TO SOCIAL CONTROL? ▯No…not when you were a child, but today? Posture Photos POSTURE PHOTOS Have you had your posture photos yet? 2 Not Just the How Can Social Control Be So Few Powerful? Thousands of The great majority of social control is internalized students at some of social control in which people do things because the nation’s most they believe it is the right thing to do, not prestigious because they are forced to do so. universities had -EmileDurkheim these posture photos taken, including George Bush, Sr., Hillary Rodham Clinton, and many others. THEME: THE SOCIAL INTERACTIONIST THEORY CONSTRUCTION OF REALITY ▯ Individuals, though constrained by social ▯ People offer a “definition of the situation ”--a statement or action circumstances, can make decisions and that explicitly or implicitly suggests the meaningthe actor would like others to attribute to their actions. take actions that influence their own lives and those of others. ▯ Symbols are used to communicate ▯ Competing definitions of the situation are reconciled to produce a meaning between people “negotiated order”--a shared meaning of the situation agreed upon by all participants. ▯ Emergent properties are important characteristics of groups that cannot be reduced to some simple combination of ▯ Since the meaning of social life is negotiated in a social process characteristics of individuals. among participants, reality is not directly experienced by individuals so much as it is socially constructed. Definition of the Situation Competing Definitions of the Situation He’s kind of immodest, but nice chest She’s cute, but She’s cute, but kind of 2- kind of 2- dimensional for dimensional for a senior, and a senior, and Michelangelo’s David has funny hair Amedeo Modigliani’s Michelangelo’s David has funny hair Amedeo Modigliani’s Head and Bust in Profile Head and Bust in Profile 3 Negotiated Order Is This A Crime? ▯ Is taking this picture a crime? ▯ On November 2, 1995 Cambridge, MA police arrested T oni Marie Angeli for taking photographs of her nude 4-y ear old son after they were called by photo shop employeeswho Afferrallll,s aitt iis developed the film. toga parryty ▯ Yet many families have nude photographs of young CCarpe Diem children taken in bathtubs, playing outside, and so on. ▯ Mrs. Angeli claimed she was taking the photographs for a photography class at Harvard University. ▯ What do you think? Michelangelo’s David Amedeo Modigliani’s ▯ How does this relate to defining the situation and Head and Bust in Profile negotiated order? George Herbert Defining Crime Mead(1863-1931) ▯ Son of a New England Posters like this appeared on minister trains and subways early in the 20th Century as part of efforts to ▯ Taught at the University of criminalize marijuana. Chicago ▯ Developed Symbolic Interactionist -HowardBecker Perspective ▯ Believed people can interact by taking the role of the other THEME: SOCIAL STRUCTURE SUICIDE ▯ Social structures are enduring, relatively Suicide Rates per 100,000 by Country, 2001 stable patterns of social behavior United States Switzerland Suicide rates ▯ Social structures constrain social Sweden differ behavior, even behaviors we might think Italy Maleses Germany systematically are solely individual France by country and Canada Gender ▯ For example, consider suicide. Suicide is Australia not just a highly personal individual act, 0 5 0 15 10 25 20 3 but is influenced by social factors Source: World Health Organization 4 SUICIDE SUICIDE A Bhuddist Suicide monk burns himself to death I. Russell Sorgi, 1942 to protest the Diem government in The woman was South Vietnam described as a despondent divorcee. Sorgi’s camera caught her as she plunged to Malcolm her death. Browne, Associated Press, 1963. STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) THEORY Some social structures lead to important consequences ▯ Social facts are regular patterns of behavior that exist independently of individuals and constrain individual Structures Social behavior So societies Consequences ▯ Conducted a classic study in which he found suicide that survive to be related to social integration of individuals in the are more The larger society (e.g., egoistic suicide and altruistic likely to have consequences, in these turn, help suicide) structures societies survive ▯ Developed the structural-functional perspective Society Structural-Functional Theory Example: Families THEME: SOCIAL INEQUALITY Families have important consequences like socializing children So societies that survive Families Socializing There is great inequality both are more Children likely to have within societies and between families, Well-socialized because children help societies. those lacking societies survive. families were unlikely to survive. Society 5 Child Labor in the U.S. in early th POVERTY 20 Century Death vigil in Sudan Kevin Carter, 1993 After taking this picture, the photographer chased away the vulture. Karl Marx EXAMPLES OF SOCIAL INEQUALITY (1818-1883) ▯Top 10% of U.S. population owns 91% percent of all securities ▯ Born in Germany, spent most ▯The average income in the United States is of his life in Britain hundreds, even thousands of times, larger ▯ Influenced by the Industrial Revolution than the average income in some developing countries. ▯ Believed that human history was the history of class conflict ▯The per capita energy consumption in ▯ Father of the conflict perspective developed countries is more than ten times the per capita consumption in developing countries. CONFLICT THEORY CONFLICT THEORY ▯ Society consists of groups competing for scarce resources. ▯ What appears on the surface to be cooperation merely masks the struggle for bourgeoisie power. ▯ Social structures persist in society because they serve the interests of those who have wealth and power. proletariat 6 THEME: KNOWLEDGE So, is this some ▯ How do we KNOW something? vast cosmic intergenerational conspiracy? ▯ How do we distinguish scientific knowledge from beliefs? Or could it be due to chance? THEME: SOCIAL CHANGE Max Weber (1864-1920) ▯ German son of a successful Protestant ▯ Social change is a entrepreneur pervasive aspect of This statue of Lenin ▯ Argued modern life was experiencing social life was torn down after increasing rationality the fall of the Soviet ▯ Traditional organizations were being Union in 1989 superceded by bureaucracies ▯ Social change occurs ▯ The Protestant Work Ethic encouraged more quickly in some This statue of the rise of capitalism Saddam ▯ Social life is based on rational action societies than in Hussein met a guided by subjective understanding similar fate in (verstehen) anchored in shared cultural others…Why? 2003 ideas An Example: College Life An Example: College Life (Continued) Question Concept Illustrated Question Concept Illustrated Who’s not here? Inequality (race, gender, class) What is a university? Roles, Social statuses, organizations, social change CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR Grading knowledge • how should we act? Social structures (norms,etc.), socialization latent functions, inequality Grading on a curve • what is a classroom? social construction of reality • talking and other deviance, social control, crowd Student subcultures Culture, distinction disruptions behavior 7 THE END RECAP ▯What is Sociology? ▯Recurrent Themes ▯Theoretical Perspectives BYE ▯Founding Sociologists 8


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