Bio 02. Week 3- Lecture 4 & 5
Bio 02. Week 3- Lecture 4 & 5 Bio 002
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cecilia Hernandez on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 002 at University of California - Merced taught by Dr. Kamal Dulai in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO MOLECULAR BIOLOGY in Biological Sciences at University of California - Merced.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
BIO-02 LECTURE #4 – TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6, 2016 Topics: 1) Chemistry 2) Types of bonds 3) Common atoms in cells 4) Shape & charge 5) Molecules 1. Chemistry: 60% water molecules 99% contains 4 elements Hydrogen, Carbon, Oxygen, and Nitrogen 1% contains 7 elements Na, Mg, K, Ca, P, S, and Cl NaCl tends to break apart because the water turns it into ions 2. Types of bonds: Ionic bond the gain or loss of electrons Covalent bonds sharing of electrons Very stable and the strongest bond Single bond, Double bonds, and Triple bonds Nonpolar (equal sharing): Example, Hydrogen-Oxygen & Carbon-Oxygen Polar bond (unequally sharing): Example, Oxygen-Oxygen Hydrogen bond Must involve Hydrogen & another molecule water is held together by hydrogen bond Van der Waals An attraction from another atom’s nucleus The right distance in order to reach Van der Waals Hydrophobic interaction When fat hates water 3. Common atoms in cells: Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Sulfur, and Phosphorus They’re all light elements with small diameters Very stable bonds between them 4. Shape & charge: Shape Single bond= can rotate & the molecule can change shape Double bond & triple bond= no rotation & the shape does not change Charge Polar bonds= uneven distribution of electrons creating an uneven charge distribution Nonpolar bonds= equal pull by both of the atoms which have an equally charge distribution 5. Molecules: Proteins C, O, H, & N (S) DNA & RNA C, O, H, N, & P Carbohydrates C & H Lipids C, H, & O Macromolecules: Proteins, DNA & RNA, & Carbohydrates MonomersPolymers SugarsPolysaccharides Fatty Acids Fats, Lipids, & Membranes Amino AcidsProteins NucleotidesNucleic Acids LECTURE #5- THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 8 , 2016TH Topics: 1) Macromolecules in cells 2) Chapter 11: Membrane organization & Function 1. Macromolecules in cells: The cell is composed of 70% H2O A lot of proteins than RNA RNA has many different types: Messenger RNA Ribosomal RNA Transfer RNA 30 different types of RNA Some act as defense mechanism RNA is good at hunting viruses A cell is organized chemistry Condensation Removal of H2O & making a bigger macromolecule Hydrolysis Adding H2O & making the macromolecule shorter SubunitsMacromoleculesMacromolecule complex (Covalent bonds) (Noncovalent bond) 2. Chapter 11: Membrane Organization & Function: Lipid bilayer = 2 layers of lipid (Hydrophobictail & Hydrophilichead) 50 atoms thick = 5nm The layer prevents the entry and exit of molecules except when the conditions are controlled Nutrients enter & waste exists Gates allow certain molecules to enter Receptors are able to detect the environment It’s able to grow and shrink It’s able to reseal itself by exclusion of water molecules or the formation of small vesicles The lipid bilayer contains lipid molecules and protein molecules The phosolipid head is linked to a phosphate group The Golgi apparatus puts sugar on the hydrophilic head facing the extracellular space (outside) Sugars protect the cell from the immune system Same sugars are accepted but different sugars from the membrane are killed Phosphatidylcholine most abundant, choline, phosphate, & the 2 long hydrocarbon chains Chloroplast has a triple membrane The nucleus & mitochondria have a double membrane Proteins stabilize the membrane It can move around lateral, flexion, & rotation…flip flop (rarely occurs) Flippases occurs at the END (Phosolipid molecules can enter inside, but the inside phosolipid molecule can’t move outside) Length of the hydrocarbon tail: 14 to 24 carbon atoms. The shorter the more fluid Number of double bonds: the more saturated the more rigid Saturated fats Solid @ room temperature Example: Butter More dense Unsaturated fats Carbon double bonded Liquid @ room temperature Example: oil Less dense Animals have cholesterol in their lipid layer which makes it stiff
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