Art History 2, Week 4 Notes
Art History 2, Week 4 Notes ARTS 1720
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liv Taylor on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTS 1720 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Katherine Arpen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Art History 2 in Arts at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
September 7-9, 2016 (Week 4) Dr. Katherine Arpen ARTS 1720 Sculpture: Nicola Pisano - Pulpit for Pisa Baptistery out of marble - Quintessentially Italian: continuous narration (multiple scenes in one frame) visually crowded, similar to Roman sarcophagi: very high relief, which creates major shadows and a three dimensionality - Personification of Fortitude (Pisa) = Hercules (Roman) - Taking a pagan ideal of strength and making it into a spiritual one Illustrated manuscripts: - Also known as “illuminated” manuscripts - Manu = hand + scriptus = written - Major artform of medieval period - Paper transitioned from papyrus scroll to animal skin book - The cost was really high because of the elaborate covers, therefore they only had specialized owners (elite and clergy, NOT ordinary people) - Different from stained glass beauty that was open to the public - Scriptorium: Manuscript workshops that are almost exclusively on the grounds of religious places (monasteries, etc.) - The artists began signing their works or incorporated a self-portrait in order to finally take credit for their work (hadn’t been done before) - Individual creativity: Created their own interpretations of things - Marginalia: Creativity in the margins of the text (very often have nothing to do with the text) - Historiated initial: A letter filled with decorations and designs, the first letter of the start of a new section - Similar designs of historiated capitals - Psalm: Beginning of a new psalm would be indicated by a page full of the first letter of the psalm with the design itself reflecting its content - Psalter - Interlace: A series of overlapping, interconnected lines (visual puzzles to focus on the spiritual) - Bestiary: Describes real and imaginary animals and plants that pass on a lesson, imagery relates to the text and these invented stories make a Christian allegory, requires reader to dwell on them longer. - Grisaille: Drawing executed entirely from shades of gray - Book of Hours: Tiny prayer books for every hour (Queen Jeanne d’Evreaux) Proto-Renaissance: (Florentine and Sienese Painting) - Ideas of Renaissance begin in Italy - Maniera Greca: Art produced in Italy but reliant on Byzantine influence - Frontal, symmetrical, stoic - Unrealistic, unnatural, rigid, formal - Gold space Cimabue: Mix of naturalism and Byzantine, altar in a church in Florence Byzantine characteristics: - Not proportional or realistic - Gold-leaf (precious, reflective, divine light) Naturalism characteristics: - Heads tilted in variation - Three-dimensional - Gravity’s affect on fabric - Shadows and light - Layering of figures - Natural poses Giotto di Bondone: Set art toward naturalism - Gold and symmetric still but develops Cimabue’s elements even further (the figures really cover up each other, more shadows, more realistic, profiles, heavy layering, conveys weight (not flat) Arena Chapel, Padua, Italy (Giotto) - Lamentation: huge move toward naturalism - Emotion, fore, middle and background, realistic scale, not symmetrical, individualized, color variation, intense shadows and lighting, offsets the focal point, tree = foreshadowing symbol, etc. - Foreshortening: When a person or object is presented perpendicular (dead on) to the picture plane (matches real vision) i.e. angels in Lamentation
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