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Chapter 2 Notes

by: Megan Cunningham

Chapter 2 Notes Chem150

Megan Cunningham
Fresno State

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These notes cover the lecture for Chapter 2. Again, I have incorporated information from the textbook, visual aids, and simplified explanations to help with understanding of important topics. At th...
Intro to Biochemistry
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Cunningham on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem150 at California State University Fresno taught by DeJean in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biochemistry in Chemistry at California State University Fresno.


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Date Created: 09/11/16
Chapter 2 Water: The Solvent for Biochemical Reactions POLARITY ● Electron​egativity ​= the tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself ​ (and become negatively charged)​in a chemical bond ● ​Polar bond = the unequal sharing of electrons between two atoms of different electronegativities ○ Part​ ial negative charge ​δ‐)found​on the ​most electronegative atom ■ Shared electrons more likely to be found at this end of the bond ○ Pa ​ rtial positive charge (δ+)​foun​d on the ​ east electronegative atom ○ Covalent ​ (share electrons) ​ ● Dipole = a bond with a positive and a negative end ○ One positively charged molecule + one negatively charged molecule ● Example: Water molecule ○ Oxygen is more electronegative, therefore it holds a partial negative charge ○ Dipole​‐dipole interaction occurs between oxygen and hydrogen WATER ‐ A POLAR SOLVENT ● Due to its polarity, water gives rise to several types of ​electrostatic attractions ○ This variety of interactions make ​ s water the ​ deal solvent for polar and ionic molecules ​ ■ Solvent = able to dissolve other substances ○ Non‐polar molecules do not typically dissolve in water ● What causes molecules to dissolve in this solvent? ○ The overall abundance of ​dipole‐dipole interactions​ in the solvent allows for the water molecules to ​overcome the bonds between molecules in the substrate ○ One by one, the water molecules are able to separate individual atoms (ions)​from the su ​bstrate and surrounding them forming ​hydration shells) ​ ● Hydrophilic = “water‐loving” ​ (a substance that tends to dissolve in water) ​ ● Hydrophobic = “water‐fearing” ​ (tends NOT to dissolve in water) ​ ● Amphipathic = has BOTH hydro‐philic and ‐phobic characteristics AMPHIPATHIC MOLECULES ● Interactions between amphipathic molecules are very weak ​ ○ van der Waals interactions = non‐covalent and weak attractions between dipoles ● Hydrophilic end is p ​ olar ● Hydrophobic end is n ​ onpolar ● Example: Micelle ○ Here, the polar heads interact with the surrounding solution and form a ring‐shaped barrier protecting their nonpolar tails from the aqueous environment **A real‐life example of this behavior can be observed when oil is added to water** HYDROGEN BONDING ​ ● Noncovalent interaction between a hydrogen atom​ ​ ​ electronegative atom) a nd a lone pair of electrons​ electronegative atom) ○ Example: Two water molecules ○ The very weak interaction between oxygen’s lone pair of electrons on one molecule ​ (left)​and hydrogen on the second molecule ​ a ​hydrogen bond ​ ​ ■ The first oxygen is ​receiving the hydrogen being d second oxygen ● Linear bonds are stronger than nonlinear ​ ○ Linear hydrogen bonding occurs when all three atoms involved lie in a straight line ​ (as picture above) ● Hydrogen bonding contributes to water’s effectiveness as a solvent ​ ○ A polar ​solute ​substance being dissolved)​ hydrogen to form a bond will readily interact with water **In Chapter 4, we will see the importance of hydrogen bonding to the structure of ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​


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