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BIOL 1305 Week 2 Notes

by: Taylor Ann Coit

BIOL 1305 Week 2 Notes 1305

Marketplace > University of Texas at El Paso > Science > 1305 > BIOL 1305 Week 2 Notes
Taylor Ann Coit

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About this Document

These are the notes from Chapter 2 from the biology textbooks. This material covers what will be on the next exam and can also help answer the study guides.
General Biology
Dr. Schuyler Pike
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Ann Coit on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1305 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Schuyler Pike in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Science at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
BIOL 1305 08/24/16 Chapter 2: Life Chemistry and Energy Key Concepts: ­2.1 Atomic Structure is the basis for Life’s Chemistry ­2.2 Atoms Interact and Form Molecules ­2.3 Carbohydrates Consist of Sugar Molecules  ­2.4 Lipids Are Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic ­2.5 Biochemical Energy is needed for Life 2.1 Element­ Pure substance that contains only one kind of atom  Living things are composed of: ­Carbon {C} ­Hydrogen {H} ­Nitrogen {N} ­ Sulfur {S} ­ Oxygen {O} ­ Phosphorous {P} Number of Protons identifies element Number of protons = atomic number Mass Number = total number of protons and neutrons Electrical neutrality [ # protons = # electrons] Electron Shells: st 1  shell­ 2 electrons max nd 2  shell­ 8 electrons max rd 3  shell­ 18 electrons max Atoms with unfilled outer shells tend to undergo chemical reactions to  fil their outer shells Octet Rule­ atoms with at least 2 electron shells form stable molecules  so they have 8 electrons in their outermost shell. They can attain stability by sharing electrons with other atoms or by  losing or gaining electrons.  2.2: Strength and stability­ covalent bonds are very strong; it takes a lot of  energy to break them. Multiple bonds Single­ sharing 1 pair of electrons Double­ Triple­ Orientation­ length, angle, and direction of bonds between any two  elements are always the same.  Example: Methane always forms a tetrahedron. Degree of sharing electrons is not always equal. It depends on the number of protons and the distance between the  nucleus and electrons.    Electronegativity­ the attractive force that an atomic nucleus exerts on  electrons.  Pure Covalent Bonds­ when two atoms have exactly the same  electronegativity. Non­Polar Covalent Bonds­ are when atoms have nearly identical  electronegativities. If atoms have very different electronegativities electrons tend to be near  the most attractive atom, what is called a polar covalent bond.  Ions­ charged particle that form when an atom gains or loses one or  more electrons. Cations­ positively charged ions Anions­ negatively charged ions [They attract one another] Ionic bonds­ result from the electrical attraction between ions with  opposite charges.  The resulting molecules are called salts.  Hydrogen Bonds­ attraction between the negative charge of one end of a molecule and a positive charge end of another molecule. Hydrogen bonds form commonly between Hydrogen and Oxygen,  Nitrogen or Sulfur.  Water molecules form multiple hydrogen bonds with each other­ this  contributes to high heat capacity. Water has a high heat of vaporization­ a lot of heat is required to change  water from liquid to gas. How much heat it takes to make water boil? Thus, evaporation has a cooling effect on the environment. Example: Sweating cools the body Cohesion­ water molecules resist coming apart when placed under  tension.  This permits narrow columns of water to move from roots to leaves to  plants.  Hydrophilic­ water loving; molecules have a charge  Hydrophobic­ water fearing (hating); molecules with no charge  Example: Salt dissolves in water because sodium is hydrophilic.  Example: When vinegar is mixed with water they do not mix. The  vinegar is hydrophobic.  Functional groups­ small groups of atoms with specific chemical  properties; confer these properties to lager molecules One biological molecule may contain many functional groups. *Look for Functional groups in AP Biology notebook* Macromolecules­ most biological molecules are polymers (poly= many  mer= units), made by covalent bonding of smaller molecules called  monomers (mono= one) Carbohydrates ­ Source of stored energy ­ Transport stored energy within complex organisms  ­ Structural molecules that give many organisms their shapes ­ Recognition or signaling molecules that can trigger specific  biological responses Monosaccharides­ are simple sugars; basic unit of a sugar Pentoses­ 5 carbon sugars Examples: Ribose and Deoxyribose Hexoses­ 6 carbon sugars  Examples: Mannose, Galactose, Glucose, and Fructose  Monosaccharides are covalently bonded by condensation reactions that  form glycosidic linkages.  Disaccharide­ 2 carbon sugars  Example: Sucrose  Oligosaccharides­ contain several monosaccharides; many have  additional functional groups  Glycogen= found in animals (found inn liver) Starch=found in plants Cellulose­ an unbranched polymer or glucose with linkages that are  chemically stable. Lipids­ hydrocarbons (composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms); they  are insoluble in water because of many nonpolar covalent bonds.  When they close together, weak but addictive van der Walls interactions  hold them together.  Example; Soap Lipids: ­ store energy in C­­­­C and C­­­­H bonds ­ hormones and many signaling molecules made from lipids. ­ structure of cell membranes are composed of fatty acids along with  cholesterol and proteins. ­ fat in adipose tissue insulates animal bodies  Fats­ solid at room temperature  Oils­ liquid at room temperature  Triglycerides (simple lipids)­ very little polarity and extremely  hydrophobic.  Fatty Acid chains can vary length and structure Metabolism­ sum of all chemical reactions in our body; sum of all  chemical reactions occurring in a biological system at a given time.  Involve energy changes  Saturated Fatty Acids­ all bonds between carbon atoms are single; they  are saturated with hydrogens. Liquid at room temperature  Unsaturated Fatty Acids­ Solid at room temperature  Catabolic Reactions­ break down complex molecules into simpler ones.  Anabolic Reactions­ link simple molecules to form complex ones;  require energy inputs; energy is captured in the chemical form. Chemical Reactions­ occur when atoms have enough energy to combine, or change bonding partners. ­All forms of energy can be considered as either: Potential­ the energy of state or position; or stored energy Kinetic­ the energy of movement (the type of energy that does not work) that makes things change. ­Energy can be converted from one form to another.  Endergonic Reaction­ put in energy to break bonds or unite them.  Exergonic Reaction­ reaction takes place and releases all energy. Law of Thermodynamics­ apply to all matter and energy transformations in the universe. 1    law­ energy is neither created nor destroyed nd 2    Law­ Disorder (entropy) tends to increase. More products after  chemical reaction. ­When energy is converted from one form to another, some of that  energy becomes unavailable for doing work. (It is converted to a lower  energy form like heat.) ­Metabolism creates more disorder (more energy is lost to entropy) than  the amount of order that is stored. Example: The Anabolic reactions needed to construct 1 kg of animal  body require the catabolism of about 10 kg of food. ­Life requires a constant input of energy to maintain order.   


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