Popular in History after 1945
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
verified elite notetaker
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by meghan Hamilton on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HST 296 at Miami University taught by ErikJensen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see History after 1945 in History at Miami University.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Germany: East and West ● Emergence of new states allowed superpowers to extend their influence ● By 1950’s Europe’s power balance seemed stable because there are two nuclear superpowers ○ Achieved this power balance through threats of using their weaponry Major Player: GERMANY, Soviet Union, Allies What’s Happening? ● Communists lost civil war in Greece, so the country joined NATO in 1952 ● Eastern Germany was a target for Soviet reparations ● After 1945 Soviets dismantled ¼ of eastern Germany’s prewar industrial capacity ○ This lead to a major balance of payments crisis ● Eastern Germany lacked essentials such as iron and coal ○ Had these essentials when germany was unified ● In 1952, Stalin’s government called for German peace treaty ● Creation of Iron Curtain ○ Split many cities right in half ● Eastern Germany just wanted a peaceful Germany, whether socialist or not ● In 1954 Soviet Union recognized the GDR as a sovereign state ● Federal Republic’s economic problems were intensified by the Allies control over German Industry ● Korean War was vital in West Germany’s transformation: U.S. and NATO needed the steel, chemicals and industrial machinery ● By 1959 West Germany was producing 1/5 th of the world's manufactured goods ● Western Allies enjoyed some military rights including bases and training areas ○ Government renounced ABC weapons ● Konrad Adenauer: Federal Republic’s First Chancellor (194963) ○ Wanted to bind the free part of Germany into the Western Alliance ○ Saw Soviet Union as a racial threat ○ Saw Prussianism as the root of what had been wrong with Germany before the war ● European Economic Community ○ Created January 1958 ○ Calculated response to postwar challenges of capitalism, nationalism and interdependence Major Themes ● Political power struggle. ● Rebuilding. ● Fight to unify Germany ● Allies influence Two Europes Major Players: Eastern Europe and Western Europe What’s Happening? ● Eastern europe was less developed ○ Nation states were slower to emerge here ● The state is the west was more dominant than in the west: politically and economically ○ Civil rights limited ○ Legislatures not powerful ○ Social institutions lacked autonomy ● Land reform ● By 1949 many countries in Eastern Europe were ruled by communism ● Marshall Plan June 1947 and growing independence of Yugoslavia forced Stalin to keep his promise ● Yugoslavia pushed out of Cominform because they broke “internationalist traditions” of communism ● Communist parties expanded in the 1940’s then after the war they began to dismiss those who were not truly loyal to communism ● Stalinization: replacing the market with the party as the determining mechanism ○ Wanted things to be cost efficient, criteria of quality and consumer preference rarely applied ○ Ex: in 1939 hungary made 80 different types of shoes, in 1950s only 16 different types of shoes were made ● Stalin died in March 1953: power struggles began ○ State was ruled by a group of men(Georgi Malenkov, Lavrenti Beria, Nikita Khrushchev): decided that the excesses of Stalinism had to stop ■ Political prisoners were released ■ They began to speak of “peaceful coexistence” with the United States ■ Restored foreign ministry ○ Nikita Khrushchev won the power struggle after he had Beria thrown in jail because he thought he was “a western agent” ■ Malenkov lacked the skills for political fighting ● Reform must not threaten communist party/rule ● Most of Eastern Europe underwent an industrial revolution, pulling people from farmlands to the cities ○ Only Albania, Romania and Yugoslavia remained half agricultural society ● In most communist states problems of the command economy existed, political liberties denied, and agriculture remained a disaster Themes: ● Political power struggle ● The takeover of communism and socialism
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