Tpcs: Mediterranean World
Tpcs: Mediterranean World HIS 206-02
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jazzmin Casterlow on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 206-02 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Ian Michie in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Tpcs: Mediterranean World in History at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Jazzmin Casterlow 932016 Egypt and the Bronze Age (50001200 BCE) l Egypt’s geographical isolation created political unity, as opposed to the characteristic disunity of Mesopotamia. l Egyptian history passed relatively smoothly through three periods, the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms, each with its own particular characteristics. Before The Pharaohs (50003000 BCE): l Egyptian civilization was the result of a long process of evolution from the cultures of the Neolithic and Chalcolithic Ages. l Egypt became increasingly politically unified as regional rulers gained greater authority. l By 3000 BCE, Egypt had become unified under a single, allpowerful ruler. Geography and Culture u Life in Egypt was based on the repeating Nile cycle, resulting in the three four monthlong Egyptian seasons: “Inundation”(flood), “Going forth” (planting), and “Definciency” (low water and harvest). u In order to forecast the seasons, the Egyptians created a calendar based on the moon, with twelve months of thirty days each; five days were added at the end of each year to make a 365day year that serves as the basis of the modern calendar. u Nile valley was divided into two sections, Lower Egypt consisted only of the Nile delta, and Upper Egypt extended all the wasy to Kush (later known as Nubia), the region south of Egypt that controlled access to the products of central Africa. u Egypt was further divided into about fortytwo smaller districts called nomes, twentytwo in Upper Egypt and twenty in Lower Egypt. The Origins of The Egyptians u A century ago it was thought that Egyptian history began with dynasties, or families, of pharaohs as the Egyptian rulers came to be known, from a word meaning “Great House” in the early third millennium BCE, but it now is recognized that pre dynastic Egypt had a long history extending millenia into the past. u By about 5000 BCE, a sophisticated Chalcolithic culture, first located as alBadari in Upper Egypt and known as the Badarian Culture (ca. 45003800 BCE), had arisen. u Circa 3500 BCE, Naqada I was succeeded by Naqada II (previously known as Gerzean, after the village of Gerzeh); by now full scale farming had been mastered, Jazzmin Casterlow 932016 with dams, dikes, and canals used to store water and conduct it to larger areas of farmland in what is know as basin irrigation. u In Lower Egypt to the north, the earliest known settlement of the Nile delta was found at Merimde Benisalame, a Neolithic agricultural village dating to about 4800 4250 BCE, contemporary with the Badarian culture to the south. u It consisted of reed huts laid out on winding streets, emmer wheat was cultivated along with domesticated cattle, sheep, and pigs, hunting and fishing provided an appreciable part of the diet, and a distinctive herringbone pottery style was used along with flax that was spun for cloth. The Naqada III Period u As of 3200 BCE, the beginning of the Naqada III period (32003000 BCE), the graves of rulers in Upper Egypt are marked by very rich grave goods and indicate a status and prestige based society in which the ruler was markedly supreme. u The mortuary practices of elites and rulers throughout Egypt developed a form of burial architecture known as the mastaba, from an arabic word menaing “bench,” above ground a mastaba cosisted of a mudbrick boxlike rectangular enclosure as much as thirty feet high with sloping sides and a flat top that contained a small space for leaving offerings. u Two kingdoms developed in Upper and Lower Egypt; the ruler of Upper Egypt wore the Hedjet, a tall white crown, and the ruler of Lower Egypt wore the Deshret, a broad red wicker crown bearing the curly probuscis of a honeybee. The Early Dynastic Period (30002700 BCE) l By the end of the Naqada III period, the drying out of the climate was complete, leading to the final desertification of the lands surrounding the Nile and making the population of Egypt completely dependent on extensive exploitation of agriculture that could be accomplished only by the mobilization of large numbers of people for labor in agriculture and water control. Egyptian Record Keeping u Egyptian writing known as hieroglyphs ( Greek for “sacred writing”), developed quite differently from Mesopotamian writing and always retsined its ideograms, with some seven hundred symbols used to represent difficult words, thoughts, or meanings. u True hieroglyphs were used only for large ceromonial inscriptions written on stone monuments. u A cursive form of hieroglyphs called hieratic ( Greek for “priestly writing”) was used for writing with pen and ink on papyrus or on the walls of tombs. Jazzmin Casterlow 932016 u The earliest preserved Egyptian list known as the Royal Annals and preserved in stone fragments at Palermo in Sicily and elsewhere, lists pharoahs from the first Dynasty to the middle of the Fifth Dynasty. The Unification of Egypt u Just before 3000 BCE, the rulers of This (Abydos) triumphed over other local Egyptian rulers and united Egypt under a pharoah who established the First Dynasty. u Political unity then became the standard condition of ancient Egypt. u Cartouche which is a rectangle enclosing the name of a pharaoh on momuments and in documents. Egyptian Civilization u Menes established a new capital city for a united Egypt at InebHedj (Memphis), “the City of the White Walls,” just south of where Upper and Lower Egypt met, which became the new center of government. u The city God of Memphis, Ptah, was seen as the God who created the world simply by speaking. u During the Second Dynasty, Ra (or Re), a God of the noonday sun worshipped just across the river from Memphis at Om (Heliopolis), became the most important God of Egypt. u The Egyptians believed in the concept of Ma’at, the divinely mandated order, stability, and justice that governed all activities involving both people and the Gods. The Old Kingdom (27002200 BCE) l The Old Kingdom primary characteristics are the all powerful position of the pharaoh and the initial construction of huge monuments known as the pyramids. The Age of the Pyramids u Pharaohs were thought of as Gods even in the afterlife. u Dead pharaohs were accompanied by grave goods that would permit them to enjoy in the after life the same kind of life they hahd had while they were alive. u Dead retainers called ushabtis, were clay figures of servants who would care for the deseased in the afterlife. u The Royal Annals record that the last pharaoh of the Second Dynasty or the first of the Third built the first stone building in Egypt. u Three successive pharaohs, Khufu (Cheops) (ca. 25852566 BCE), Khafre (Rekhaf) (ca. 25582532BCE), and Menkaure (Mycerinus) (ca. 25322514 BCE),then built Jazzmin Casterlow 932016 gigantic pyramids, the largest of them, that of Khufu, took twentythree years to build and is known now as the Great Pyramid. The First Intermediate Period u The pharaoh Pepi II (22782184 BCE), was the longest attest monarch in history. u The last pharaoh of the Sixth Dynasty was said to have been Nitocris (ca. 21802175 BCE), the first woman to rule Egypt. The Middle Kingdom (20501786 BC) l Not until 2050 BCE was the nomarch Montuhotep II (20602010 BCE) of Thebes, a member of the Eleventh Dynasty, finally able to reunify Egypt, commencing the period now known as the Middle Kingdom. Gods and Pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom u Pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom were in a weaker position than those of the Old Kingdom. u One of the greatest works of literature “The Tale of Sinuhe.” u In the Middle Kingdom pyramids instead had a stone frame work filled with mud brick and rubble and covered with a limestone outer facing, instead of being built out of solid stone like the pyramids of the Old Kingdom. Mythology and Religion u In the Middle Kingdom the afterlife that had once only been available to the pharaoh, was now available to everyone. u The Egyptians believed that the world emerged from a chaotic ocean called Nu that became known as “the Father of the Gods.” u A collection of spells known as the “Book of the Dead” was wrapped around the mummy and provided the answers to the questions that the deceased would be asked by Osiris. u When one’s heart was weighed in the balance against Ma’at to see whether the deceased had lived a just life, the jackal God Anubis saw to it that no one’s heart was found wanting. Egyptian Lifestyles u During the Middle Kingdom men and women had equal legal status. u Both sexes could own and dispose of property, pursue legal cases, hold government positions, serve in temples, practice skilled professions, and marry and divorce as they saw fit. Jazzmin Casterlow 932016 u Egyptians usually married in their teens, and marriages usually had contracts that specified the rights of the husband and wife to their own possesions, the size of the allowance that the wife would recieve, and how the property would be divided in a divorce. The Second Intermediate Period u About 1730 BCE, Egypt suffered the first successful foreign invasion in its history. u A little known Semitic people from the Levant known as the Hyksos (a word meaning “Foreign Rulers”)attacked. u The Hyksos utilized the latest military technology, like updated bronze weapons, and the horse and chariot. The New Kingdom (15341070 BCE) l The New Kingdom was characterized by strong pharaohs, still headquartered at Thebes; a standing army; and the rise of the Egyptian empire. The Pharaohs and the Egyptian Empire u The pharaoh assumed the role of military leader. u Soldiers were recruited from among the aristocrats and from free men. u In the New Kingdom pharaohs no longer built pyramids, instead they spent most of their time building temples. u For nearly fivehundred years most of the pharaohs were built in elaborate underground stone tombs in the cliffs west of Thebes. u Hatshepsut (14791458 BCE) had crowned herself paraoh. u Hapshepsut’s son Thutmose III (14581425 BCE) had expanded Egypt’s power to an even higher level, in the coarse of seventeen campaigns, he created an Egyptian Empire by laying claim to territory in Palenstine and Syria. The Reform of Akhenaton u Amenhotep IV (13511334 BCE) worshiped the sun God Aton and made him the most single important God in all of Egypt. u Amenhotep IV had changed his name to Akhenaton which means “Glory of Aton.” u he prohibited the worship of other Gods and decreed that only the royal family could engage in the worship of Aton The Recovery of Egypt u Ramses I had struggled to restore the Egyptian Empire. Jazzmin Casterlow 932016 u Ramses II (12791212 BCE), the greatest warrior pharaoh,repeatedly skirmished withe the Hittites. u At the battle of Kadesh in 1274 BCE, Ramses had faced the Hittite king Muwatalli II in the greatest chariot battle of all time, with as many as six thousand chariots engaged.
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