Tpcs: Mediterranean World
Tpcs: Mediterranean World HIS 206-02
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jazzmin Casterlow on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 206-02 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Ian Michie in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Tpcs: Mediterranean World in History at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Jazzmin Casterlow 91116 Costal Civilizations of the Eastern Mediterranean (2500800 BCE) l Bronze age is viewed as the great age of river valley civilizations. Early Civilizations of the Levant (25001500 BCE) l The major Bronze Age civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt were based on the massive exploitation of agriculture. l Made use of trade by gaining access to raw materials, ranging from tin to gemstones, that were not available in the river valleys, but the fundamental basis of their economy was agriculture. l Elba u A Syrian city mentioned in Egyptian and Akkadian documents but whose locations had hitherto been unknown. u Its location was given away by its being located on a tell, which is an artificial mound created bt centuries of human habitation on the same spot. u Some 18,000 cuneiform tablets were discovered, written in languages including Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, Hittite, and a previously unknown western Semitic language, the language of the Eblaites themselves. u City governments seems to have been run by an aristocracy of merchants who chose kings with fixed terms of office. u The territory controlled by Elba extended from southern Anatolia in the north to the upper Euphrates River and was in a position to oversee trade west into the Mediterranean, north to Anatolia, south to Egypt, and east to Mesopotamia. l Coastal Commerce u The eastern coast of the Mediterranean remained a center of commercial activity, where merchants and traders found niches of opportunity. u Ugarit was the invention around 1400 BCE of a writing system, based on Egyptian characters and written on clay tablets, that used thirty symbols to represent individual consonants. Aegan Civilizations (30001100 BCE) l The early Bronze Age also brought civilization based on tarde westward into the Mediterranean region, first on the island of Crete and then in mainland Greece, where access to seaborne trade routes and specialized trade goods resulted in Bronze Age civilizations occupying additional economic niches. Jazzmin Casterlow 91116 l The Minoan Civilization of Crete u The Minoan Civilization, named after the legendary King Minos of Crete. u As of 3000 BCE, a culture centered on coastal urban centers developed. u By, 2000 BCE, several palace complexes had developed near the coast, as at Knossos in the north and Phaistos in the south. u The Minoans had a nonviolent nature and their artwork was centered on nature. u Minoan worshippers deposited what archaeologists call cult objects, implying that they had something to do with religion, in their shrines. u Men and women both had an equal role in religious ceremonies. l The Mycenaean Civilization of Greece u As about 1400 BCE the Minoan Linear A script was replaced by a variant form known as Linear B, which used symbols to write what was clearly a different language. u Linear B was deciphered in 1953 and, was identified as an early form of Greek. u By 1600 BCE a true break with the past occured with the rise of the Mysenaean civilization, named after the Bronze Age city of Mycenae in central Greece. u The role of violence in Mycenaean culture suggests that the Mycenaeans retained kings as war leaders, a hypothesis consistent with the portrayal of Mycenaean kings in Greek legends as retold in the Illiad and the Odyssey of the Greek Poet Homer. u the high Status of Mycenaean kings als is demonstrated by their burial in massive fortyfoottall stonelined underground “beehive” tombs filled with gold ornaments, including massive golden death masks, which suggest a cult of personality focused on the king. l The End of the Bronze Age u The fall of Troy, 1184 BCE, is remarkably consistent with the activities of the Sea Peoples just after 1200 BCE. u Much of the eastern Mediterranean faced attack by groups of Sea Peoples, who formed different coalitions and acted individually or collectively as circumstances dictated. u During the third Intermediate Period (1077664 BCE), Egypt split into multiple kingdoms and increasingly came under the influence of foreign peoples. The Iron Age in the Eastern Mediterranean (1200800 BCE) l In the Near East, the Bronze Age was succeeded by the Iron Age around 1200 BCE, Jazzmin Casterlow 91116 bringing new patterns of civilization that first made their mark on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. l Iron Age is defined by many other factors besides just the use of iron, including a shift from large cities in river valleys focusing on agriculture to smaller cities out of the river valleys concentrating much more heavily on commerce. l Iron and the Iron Age u In nineteenth century BCE, Assyrian merchants gave iron a value of forty times its weight in silver. u The most common source of metallic iron was meteorites, but this form it was extremely rare. u Early iron production often is associated with the Hittites, who sometimes are said to have used it as a “secret weapon.” u By 1100 BCE, knowledge of iron working had diffused into southwestern Europe, and it reached Britain by about 700 BCE. l The Phoenicians u The Phoenicians, another Semitic people, expanded their economies through commerce. u Phoenicians were independent citystates governed by a king advised by a coucil of nobles. u In order to keep commercial records, the Phoenicians created the true alphabet, modeled on the protoalphabet of Ugarit. l The Aramaeans and Philistines u Aramaeans were heavily engaged in trade by land. u The Aramaean language replaced Akkadian as the language of international diplomacy. u The Philistines were primarily farmers who lacked sufficient seaports, thus never becoming sailors although in spite of this they became wealthy by taxing the sea and land traffic passing norht and south between Phoenicia and Egypt. The Hebrews (2000900 BCE) l Settled just inland from the Philistines, who had the greatest impact on history. l They developed a very personal relationship with their god that made their religion unique among the religions of the preChristian period. l The Hebrew Bible described the Hebrew people’s history and relations with god, and Jazzmin Casterlow 91116 it was this book, more than anything, that gave the Hebrews their senseof identity. l The Origin of the Hebrews u The first period of Hebrew history is the Age of the Patriarchs. u According to the Bible, bands of wondering Hebrews, consisting of an extended family group and its dependents, were led by an elderly male patriarch. u Women had an inferior staus this maledominated society. u Even though early Hebrews did not deny the existence of other gods, they now were moving toward monotheism, the belief that there was only one, single god. l Creating an Identity u The Exodus was one of the very few occasions in history when a persecuted minority succeeded in escaping from its oppressors, and it was taken as a sign that Yaweh had performed his part in the covenant. u The hebrew regulations were often more specific than the laws issued by the Mesopotamians, because they dealt with not only criminal and civil law but also the most intamate aspects of personal conduct, such as who could marry whom. u The Hebrews can be referred to as the Israelites. l The Promise Land u After forty years in the desert, the Israelites finally emerged into Canaan. u Canaanite populations sometimes were massacred in order to protect Israelite culture from foreign influence. u The most important Israelite leaders after the Exodus were judges, who. under the authority of Yaweh, appeared in times of trouble and led shortlived coalitions and tribes against hostile peoples. l The Israelite Kingdom u The great age of the Israelite kingdom came under the next two kings, David and Solomon. u David (1010970 BCE) captured from the Canaanites the heavily fortified city of Jerusalem, which became the Israelite capital city. u Under David’s son Solomon (970930 BCE), the Israelite state completed transformation from loosely organized groups of pastoralists united by a shared religion to an urbanized and politically centralized nation. u After Solomon’s death around 930 BCE, unrest over high taxes split the kingdom in half. Jazzmin Casterlow 91116 u In the south the tribes of Judah and Benjamin became the Kingdom of Judah, with its capital at Jerusalem, whose inhabitants became known as the Jews.
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