New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Oceanography 251 Week 2 Notes COMPLETE 9/5-9/9

by: Anna Notetaker

Oceanography 251 Week 2 Notes COMPLETE 9/5-9/9 OCNG 251

Marketplace > Texas A&M University > Science > OCNG 251 > Oceanography 251 Week 2 Notes COMPLETE 9 5 9 9
Anna Notetaker
Texas A&M

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Chapter 2/Chapter 3, Complete Week 2 Notes * Includes clicker questions
Dr. Benjamin Giese
Class Notes
Oceanography, intro to oceanography
25 ?




Popular in Oceanography

Popular in Science

This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Notetaker on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to OCNG 251 at Texas A&M University taught by Dr. Benjamin Giese in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 129 views. For similar materials see Oceanography in Science at Texas A&M University.


Reviews for Oceanography 251 Week 2 Notes COMPLETE 9/5-9/9


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/12/16
Oceanography 251-504 9/12/16 8:34 AM 9/5/16 CHAPTER 2 CONT. Types of Plate Boundaries: • Divergent o Plates split, moving in opposite directions o “Plates move apart” o Creates ocean basins ▯ Ex. Mid-Ocean ridge ▯ Ex. Mid-Atlantic Ridge ▯ Ex. Rift Valleys ▯ Ex. East African Rift Valley o New ocean floor (ocean basin) is created (goes back to cycle from Week 1 Notes!) – continued stress from convection cycle • Convergent o Plates collide, (subduction occurs) moving towards each other o Destroys ocean basins ▯ Ex. Ocean trench ▯ Ex. Volcanic arc ▯ Results in Deep Focus Earthquakes o 3 Types of Convergent Boundaries: ▯ Ocean “vs.” Continental ▯ Ocean plate is subducted ▯ Ex. Continental Arcs ▯ Ex. Explosive andesitic volcanic eruptions ▯ Ocean “vs.” Ocean ▯ Density vs. density ▯ More dense (older) ocean plate is subducted ▯ Ex. Island Arcs ▯ Continental “vs.” Continental ▯ Subduction doesn’t really occur ▯ More of collision/”uplifting” • Ex. Tall mountains ▯ Light material vs. light material • Transform o Plates “slide past each other,” one moves north, one moves south o Offsets oriented perpendicular to mid-ocean ridge o Offsets permit mid-ocean ridge to move apart at different rates o Results in shallow but strong earthquakes o Faulting occurs ▯ Oceanic Transform Fault – ocean floor only ▯ Continental Transform Fault – cuts across continent o ALL transform faults occur between mid-ocean ridge segments (Divergent Boundaries Continued: Types of Spreading Centers) Discovery: • Mid 1970s – Scientists visit Mid-Atlantic Ridge o DSV Alvin (Allyn Vine) ▯ Spherical submarine – distributes pressure to withstand the immense pressure present at the bottom of the sea floor o What they found: ▯ 4000 meters deep ▯ No light beginning at 100m deep (water absorbs light) ▯ AKA: no photosynthesis, (initial belief: no way to create food/life) ▯ Extremely high temperatures: 400 degrees (F) ▯ Doesn’t boil because of pressure ▯ Immense pressure ▯ Spreading centers ▯ Magma results in very high temperature waters, results in plumes “letting out,” into surround cold water ▯ The minerals initially found in extremely hot water are no longer able to remain because of fast temperature change and are released • Results in “black smoke” ▯ Results in Photosynthesis Equivalent: • Chemosynthesis CHEMOSYNTHESIS: • Magma (convection cycle) produces high heat energy • Results in high temperature waters • High temperature waters interact with surrounding cold waters • Creates “plumes,” with “black smoke” • Black smoke is filled with minerals (sulfide) • Surrounding bacteria takes in those minerals • Bacteria converts those minerals into SULFIDE energy • Results in reduced Carbon Compounds • Allows sustained life o EX: Thermal Vent Ecosytems: ▯ “tube worms” ▯ clams with hemoglobin ▯ crabs/shrimp (without eyes b/c not necessary with lack of light anyways) 9/6/16 Applications of Plate Tectonics • Mantle plumes and hotspots o Hotspots – as a result of mantle plume ▯ Interpolate features ▯ Volcanic islands within a plate ▯ Island chains • Records ancient plate movement o Nematah – hotspot track • Global hotspot locations: o Yellowstone o Hawaiian Island – Emperor Seamount Nematath ▯ As islands sink (contraction) they seem to be getting smaller – and if they sink enough, it seems as if islands no longer exist because they’re completely submerged • Coral Reef Development o Fringing reefs – develop along margin of landmass ▯ Physically attached to the shoreline o Barrier reefs – separated from landmass by lagoon o Atolls – reefs continue to grow after volcanoes are submerged ▯ Reefs – living organisms ▯ Can accommodate for change of geology CLICKER QUESTION: • The mid-atlantic ridge is an example of a ______ boundary. o A. convergent – cont. cont. o B. convergent – cont. ocean o C. convergent – ocean ocean o D. divergent o E. transform fault END OF CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 4 – MARINE SEDIMENTS • “The Earth has warmed 1 degree ‘C over the past 100 years” o As a result of humans? o As a result of naturally variability? o Osculation of the climate? • Sediments – “rained down” on top of hard rock developed by heat convection/magma o Allows one to learn about timing/history o Variability – provides history of when/why/how, behind sedimentary deposits – provides evidence of climate change/ocean change • Sediment accumulation – representation of what happens at the surface o Factors include: ▯ Light ▯ Organisms ▯ Nutrients ▯ -- these shells sink down the water column and accumulate and provide for the sedimentary record ▯ ex. phytoplankton – small (microscropic) organisms that use photosynthesis to survive ▯ ex. plankton – anything that can’t swim faster than the current – relative in size – largest accumulation of anything in the world – most of the biomass on earth is phytoplankton ▯ draws down CO2 ▯ releases oxygen • = small enough that they remain at the surface • isoptopes of oxygen – ratio of o18/o16 tells us about climate • o18 = heavier than o16, more neutrons = heavier • AKA: o16 evaporates more readily than o18 because it is lighter • shells = hard, rigid o ex. calcium (carbonate?) o ex. silica o ^ both contain oxygen o allows scientists to see temperatute record, aka: the possibility to recreate climate from over 180million years ▯ not exact, but gives a sense of boundaries 9/9/16 What is the relation between CO2 and temperature? Today’s CO2 concentration: o about 400 parts per million – unprecedented compared to past ▯ unusually stable/warm o CO2-Temp curve – very highly correlated ▯ However, correlation does not provide for causation, AKA: there is no evidence that one causes the other ▯ “greenhouse mechanism” – with CO2 increases, temperature increases – could be reversed to say as temperature increases, CO2 increases ▯ we have added 100 parts per million NSF Sponsored program – ODP: Ocean Drilling Program (operated by Texas A&M) • The JOIDES Resolution Marine Sediment Classification Classified by origin: • Lithogenous – derived from land o “litho” = rock, aka land o as a result of erosion/weathering of land rock that is transported somehow to the ocean to the seafloor • Biogenous – derived from organisms o Remains of living organisms o When they die shells sink down to the sea floor and accumulate and high pressure compresses that sediment into rock o ^^majority of sediment • Hydrogenous or “authigenic” – derived from water o Comes from mineralization (salt) – only sediments that eminate from the ocean itself – everything else is transported. – very small percentage • Cosmogenous – derived from outerspace o Smallest percentage o Rains down o Virtually no mass associated Lithogenous Sediments (cont.) • Eroded rock fragments from land (weathering, fracturing, etc. AKA “breaking of rocks into smaller pieces”) • Reflect composition of rock from which derived • Small particles eroded and transported: o Carried to ocean through: ▯ Streams ▯ Wind ▯ Glaciers ▯ Gravity o Grain size – proportional to energy of transportation and deposition o Greatest quantity can be found around continental margins Sediment Distribution: • Neritic - coastal o Shallow water deposits o Close to land o Dominantly lithogenous o Typically deposited quickly • Pelagic – open ocean o Deeper water deposits o Finer grained sediments o Deposited slowly CLICKER QUESTION: • We expect that most pelagic lithogenous sediment will be: o A. formed at the spreading center o B. composed of basalt o C. coarse grained o D. fine grained o E. composed of the shells of phytoplankton 9/12/16 8:34 AM 9/12/16 8:34 AM


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.