Learning Week 2 Notes
Learning Week 2 Notes PSH 322
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlin Cornell on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSH 322 at SUNY College at Brockport taught by Dr. Forzano in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Learning in Psychology at SUNY College at Brockport.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Learning 9.7.2016 1. Five schools of behaviorism 2. Introduction to behaviorism a. Recap, British empiricists b. John B. Watson (1878 – 1958) i. First behaviorist ii. Psychology as the behaviorist views it iii. Behaviorist manifesto iv. Psychology from the standpoint of a behaviorist v. Critical of the method of introspection 1. Used by structuralists vi. Introspection – try to train people to break things down 3. Structuralism a. The first approach in psychology i. School of thought ii. Focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components b. Wilhelm Wundt (German, 1832 – 1920) i. Established the first psychology lab in 1879 in Germany at the university of Leipzig 1. Beginning of psychology ii. Lab does 2 things 1. Set the stage for behaviorism to come and brought psychology to it’s own discipline not a subdiscipline iii. Method of introspection iv. Structuralists are critical of everything Learning 9.9.2016 1. Back to Watson a. For psychology to be a purely “objective science” it must be based solely on the study of directly observable behavior and the environmental events that surround it b. Behaviorism c. Functionalist – mind evolved to adapt to the world d. Believed very strongly in the value of research with animals (non- humans) e. Adhered to law of parsimony i. Simpler explanations from a phenomenon are generally preferable to more complex explanations ii. Morgan’s canon argued that we should interpret an animals behavior in terms of 1. Lower more primitive processes instead of higher more mentalistic processes iii. Watson thought the same should be true for interpretations of human behavior f. Methodological behaviorism i. Psychologists should study only those behaviors that can be directly observed ii. In methodological behaviorism, internal events, such as consciously perceived thoughts and feelings and unconscious drives and motives, are excluded from the analysis of behavior. Instead, on studies the direct relationship between changes in the environment and changes in observable behavior g. Most behavior is learned h. S-R learning i. Stimulus – response learning ii. Believed that learning involved a connection or association between a stimulus (something in the environment) and a response (behavior) i. Molecular learning i. Breaking it down into its simplest components 2. Hull’s Neobehaviorism a. Clark Hull (1884 – 1952 b. Developed the concept of drive i. Term coined by Woodworth (1918) ii. Brought it to the forefront of psychology c. Hull’s conception of Drive i. (Principles of Behavior, 1943) ii. Drive was regarded as a condition of an organism arising from some biological need that manifests itself in a high level of activity iii. Aimed at reducing the need d. Hull suggested that physiological deficits, or needs, instigate or activate an organism to engage in a behavior that gets rid of those needs e. Drive – motivational property of the need state f. Homeostasis – staying at an optimal level (equilibrium) g. In Hull’s neobehaviorism, theorists make use of intervening variables in the form of hypothesized physiological processes to help explain the relationship between the environment and behavior h. Intervening variables – go between or mediate between things we cannot see directly i. Operational definitions for constructs – defining a construct by it’s measurement
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