Chemistry of Life: Atoms & Molecules
Chemistry of Life: Atoms & Molecules BIOL 1110 04
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marguerite Slabber on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1110 04 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Adams in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology I in Biology at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Chemistry of Life: Atoms & Molecules Element - substance that can't be decomposed into simpler substances by normal chemical reactions o Each has a chemical symbol The Basics The most important elements of life o Carbon Backbone of organic molecules o Hydrogen & Oxygen Components of water Hydrogen making up our proteins o Nitrogen DNA and RNA has to have Components of proteins and nucleic acids Atom - smallest portion of an element that retains chemical properties o Components of atoms are tiny particles of matter (anything that has mass and takes up space) - Subatomic particles Electron - has a negative charge Proton - has a positive charge Neutron - has no charge o Identified by its number of protons Fixed number of protons in the atomic nucleus - atomic number Protons + neutrons = atomic mass A number that indicates the amount (number) of matter an element contains Isotopes differ the number of neutrons o Most elements consist of a mixture of atoms with different numbers of neutrons o Isotopes of the same element contain the same number of protons and electrons Chemical Reactions o Atoms are joined by chemical bonds to form compounds o A chemical formula gives the types and relative number of atoms in a substance o Chemical equations describe chemical reactions Ocean Acidification (bad) o Harms shell forming plants and coral o CO 2eleased into the atmosphere then into the ocean which lowers the pH Bonds o Covalent bonds Strong, stable o Ionic bonds Strong in absence of water Relatively weak in aqueous solutions o Hydrogen bonds Relatively weak o Van der Waak interactions Weak forces based on fluctuating charges 1 Carbon - is the central component of organic compounds a Unique properties make it able to form backbone of large, complex molecules essential to life b Can form 4 covalent bonds with up to 4 atoms c Sing, double, or triple bonds d Can form straight, branched chains, join into rings e Carbon bonds are strong and not easily broken 2 Hydrocarbons - organic compounds consisting only of carbon and hydrogen 3 Isomers - compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures 4 Functional groups change the properties of organic molecules a Some are insoluble in water i Hydrocarbons b Some are soluble in water c Some are acidic (Cont. Next Week) I will include the above (starting at 1. Carbon, in next week’s notes)
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