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notes for first few weeks of class for phil 1010

by: Joshua Weintraub

notes for first few weeks of class for phil 1010 Phil 1010

Marketplace > The University of Cincinnati > Phil 1010 > notes for first few weeks of class for phil 1010
Joshua Weintraub
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Critical thinking
Timothy Allen
Class Notes




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joshua Weintraub on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Phil 1010 at The University of Cincinnati taught by Timothy Allen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
Notes for Critical Thinking­week 1­5   8/22/16  Most central concept in whole course is an Argument   Presenting reasons in favor a position is an Argument   Reasons = Premises   Position = Conclusion   Must be precise in using these words­ technical sense   Premises and conclusion are statements of proposition   Proposition and Statement­ the content of or what is asserted by a declarative sentence they are  always true or false   Declarative sentence­ states a fact  1. A) Ralph brought the umbrella. –Two sentences, one proposition  B) The umbrella was brought by ralph.   The Hallmark of a statement or proposition is that it is always true/false   Has to be determinable that its true or false, you don’t have to know if it’s true or false  Questions are not true or false­except in a deceptive way   If someone is asserting something that is neither true or false than it is an illegitimate argument  General Argument looks like this: Premise 1: Premise 2:  Premise 3:  ________________                Conclusion   Ascertain structural relationship between the premises and the conclusion such that the premises  support the conclusion.  Arguments can have any number of premises as long as that number is not 0  Arguments can only have ONE CONCLUSION   Conclusion encompasses all premises   Have to determine what person making argument is trying to establish or prove by isolating the  conclusion   Order is irrelevant in an argument in terms of the premises and conclusion however there is a  structural relationship between premises and conclusion       Truth of premises=Truth of conclusion   An Opinion= an unsupported claim   Not very interested in opinions­ don’t mean very much   Conclusion can come in anywhere in an argument   Conclusion is what’s being supported by premises   An argument is better than an opinion   Can’t say all arguments are equally good   Can have Good v. Bad Arguments and Better v. Worse arguments   Two Basic kinds of arguments: 1. Inductive­ a logical process in which multiple premises, all believed true or found  true most of the time, are combined to obtain a specific conclusion. Inductive  reasoning is often used in applications that involve prediction, forecasting, or  behavior . 2. Deductive­ logical process in which a conclusion is based on the concordance of  multiple premises that are generally assumed to be true. Deductive reasoning is  sometimes referred to as top­down logic. Its counterpart, inductive reasoning, is  sometimes referred to as bottom­up logic. 8/24/16:  Can turn an opinion into an argument by providing support for it  An opinion is an unsupported claim, with support it becomes a valid argument   Deductive argument can be good or bad   If Deductive argument is good, then the argument is Valid   Valid­ if the premises are true, the conclusion must be true­ Criterion   If argument is valid the premises can’t be true while the conclusion is false   A proposition is always true or false, however which one they are depends on  circumstances   Circumstances can change the truthiness of a proposition   In a good Deductive argument the Conclusion can be false only if one or more of the  premises are also false   Can have all premises be false and the conclusion be true  I,e:  1. No mammals are reptiles ­true 2. No reptiles have feathers ­true __________________________ Conclusion­ No Mammals have feathers­ false 1. Here’s a bird and it’s toothless  2. ..more toothless birds  3. ..more toothless birds  4. ..more toothless birds N=10,000 premises  _______________________________ Conclusion: All Birds are toothless   Inductive Reasoning can be Good or Bad   Inductive arguments don’t use valid or invalid   Inductive reasoning if good=strong, if bad =weak  8/26/16:   Examples of argument (1):  1. A typical person has 50,000 hairs on his/her head, but a person can have as many as  120,000  True 2. The population of Des Moines is 150,000 True Conclusion­ there is at least 2 people in Des Moines having the same number of hairs on  their head True, Valid, Deductive   First step in figuring out if an argument is valid or not is to determine what type of  argument it is   Example of argument (2): 1. On May 3rd, Jack Adams left from Long Island to row to France  2. He had 60 days supply of food and water  3. On May 8 , he was spotted 150 miles East of Nantucket Island rowing eastward. 4. There was a terrible storm in North Atlantic May 22 ­24   th 5. It is now August 15   6. There is no sign of Jack Adams Conclusion­ Jack Adams is dead, drowned in the Atlantic Inductive strong   If conclusive =Deductive   If evidence = Inductive   Birds Argument is enumerative inductive       Jack Adams= standard inductive       1 type of deductive argument       4 types of inductive arguments        A casual Argument  A is associated with B or A happened Before B and causes C    Possible explanations: 1. A causes B 2. B causes A  3. C causes both A and B  4. A coincidence  Week 2 in class Notes  8/29/16   o    Four Types of Inductive Arguments: 1. Standard 2. Enumerative  3. Causal Argument­ the conclusion is the form that A causes B  4. Argument from analogy/Analogical Argument  o Argument from analogy A is like B, therefore, what is true of A is true of B  o Paley’s argument for God: 1. A watch is a complex mechanism  2. The universe is a complex mechanism  3. A watch couldn’t come into existence by chance, it is likely part of the universe, it  also requires a watch maker  ____________________________________________________________________ Conclusion: The Universe couldn’t happen by chance but requires a creator 8/31:  o    Fallacy= A faulty Argument   o     A Faulty Argument  Fails in one way or another, to meet the criteria for being a good  argument   o     Fallacy of Appeal to Authority     accepting a position   not  because of any argument advanced in  its favor, but simply because somebody famous says so 9/2/16:  (1) Fallacy of Appeal to Authority:   On one end of a spectrum, there is extremely fallacious someone famous with no expertise  On the other end, there may be fallacies that are okay in some texts not so famous, some  expertise   (2)  Fallacy of Inconsistency  premise 2 and premise 4 do not go hand in hand together   (3) Fallacy of Strawman argument someone is trying to argue against someone but not attacking  actual argument of other person seem to attack and extreme version of it 9/7/16:  Week 3 in class notes  o Strawman Fallacy=attributing to your opponent a position more extreme than the one he/she is  advocating misrepresenting a position   o (4) False dilemma fallacy either or fallacy artificially limiting one’s choices to two only two  options  o (6)  Fallacy of Questionable Premise  introducing into an argument a claim that sounds plausible,  but for which there is not any evidence available  o  (7) Fallacy of suppressed evidence   o  (5)  Fallacy of begging the question= assuming in one part of an argument, the very point the  argument is supposed to prove  o Concepts necessary for thinking without concepts no thought is possible  9/12/16: Week 4 in class Notes:


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