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Chapter 3 week 3 notes

by: Savannah Shapley

Chapter 3 week 3 notes PHIL 102-05

Savannah Shapley
CSU Chico

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Clear thinking, critical thinking, and clear writing
Logic and Critical Thinking
Wai-Hung Wong
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Shapley on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 102-05 at California State University Chico taught by Wai-Hung Wong in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Logic and Critical Thinking in Critical Thinking at California State University Chico.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
Critical Thinking Chapter 3 Notes 9/6-9/9: Clear Thinking, Critical Thinking, and Clear Writing • Vague - a word or phrase is vague If we cannot say with certainty what it includes and what it excludes -Often intentional, used to avoid giving a clear, precise answer • Ambiguous- word, phrase, or sentence that has more than one meaning • Semantic Ambiguity- claims can be ambiguous in several ways, containing an ambiguous word or phrase -semantically ambiguous claims can be made unambiguous by substituting a word or phrase that is not ambiguous • Grouping Ambiguity- results when it’s not clear whether a word is being used to refer to a group collectively or to members of the group individually -Can be used to intentionally to interfere with clear thinking • Syntactic Ambiguity- occurs when claims are open to two or more interpretations due to its structure being syntax • Ambiguous pronoun references- occurs when it is not clear to what or whom a pronoun is supposed to refer • Generality- lack of specificity • Lexical Definitions- tell us what the word ordinarily means • Precising/ stipulative definitions- definitions that make a term more precise or that stipulate new or different meanings for them -these labels apply to uses of definitions not kinds of definitions • Rhetorical/persuasive- definitions can be used to persuade -distorts the real meaning of a term in order to influence someone to either favor or disfavor a person, policy, object, or event • Emotive meaning- rhetorical uses of definitions -positive or negative associations of a word • Definition by example (ostensive definition)- pointing to, naming, or identifying one or more examples of the sort of thing to which the term applies • Definition by synonym- giving another word or phrase that means the same as the term being defined • Analytical definition- specifying the features that a thing must possess in order for the term being defined to apply to it -these definitions often take the form of a genus-and-species classification -lexical definitions are of analytical variety • Argumentative essays -statement of the issue -statements of one’s position on that issue -arguments that support one’s position -rebuttals of arguments that support contrary positions • Essay types to avoid -the windy preamble- avoid getting to the issue -the stream of consciousness ramble- no organization of thoughts -the knee-jerk reaction- not enough evaluation of the issue -the glancing blow- address the issue obliquely, not getting to the main point -let the reader do the work 2 3


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