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Psych 280 Week 1 Notes

by: Samantha Barker

Psych 280 Week 1 Notes Psych 280

Samantha Barker

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Intro to Social Psychology
Carla Grayson
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Barker on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 280 at University of Michigan taught by Carla Grayson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Intro to Social Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Michigan.

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Date Created: 09/12/16
Lauren Krawitz ▯ Lecture 1 ▯ 1/8/14  Social Psychology o The scientific study of how individuals think, feel, and behave in regard to  other people and how individuals’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are  affected by other people  Jim Jones o Jonestown Massacre (914 committed mass suicide)  Lesson: We are like the temple members  People seeking meaning and connection in a confusing world o Why do this?  Power of the situation: Outside forces overwhelm one’s personality  Proximal & Distal Influences o Proximal: The situation itself (how it is perceived, underlying processes of  perceiving and reacting to situations)  Situational circumstances that appear unimportant but have great  consequences for behavior  Ex. Organ donors o Distal Influences:  Evolution and Culture  Evolution o Natural Selection o Naturalistic fallacy: The way things are is the way they should be Lauren Krawitz  Ex. Medicine, clothing  Culture o Collectivists vs. individualistic o What is normal? Personal space, insults, hand gestures, etc.  Power of Social Interpretation o More important to understand how people perceive, comprehend and interpret the social world than it is to know the objective elements of the world o Construal: Interpretation and inference about the stimuli or situation  These influence our behavior o Automatic & Controlled Processes  Automatic: Overlearned, automatic processing of info and behavior,  non­conscious information processing  Ex. Riding a bike, driving, typing, reading  Interactionist Perspective o Person + Situation = Behavior  Hindsight Bias o People’s tendency to be overconfident about whether they could have  predicted the given outcome (pg. 43)  Experiments o Hypothesis: A testable prediction about the conditions under which an event  will occur (ex. Caffeine improves ability) o Independent variable: Researcher manipulates it, cause (caffeine) o Dependent variable: The factors experimenters measure, effect (ability)  Abstract to specific o Operational definition: The specific procedures for manipulation or measuring a conceptual variable Lauren Krawitz  Correlation coefficients ® o +1 is the strongest positive o 0 is no linear relationship o ­1 is the strongest negative o Correlation does NOT prove causation _____________________________________________________________________ Lecture 2 1/15/14 Who are you? How do you organize information about yourself?  The self concept o The set of beliefs and perceptions about oneself  Recognition of distinct entity  “Self­schemas”, or cognitive molecules  Helps determine how we behave o We know ourselves better than everyone else in the world  Self­reference effect o The tendency for information related to the self to be more readily  processed and remembered than other types of information  Class ex) one section asked to write yes or no if the word  contained “e” and the other was told to relate it to themselves then  we had to recall as many words as possible  Cocktail party phenomenon o The ability to pick a personally relevant stimulus (ex. You name) out of a  complex environment Lauren Krawitz  Self Schemas o Beliefs people hold about themselves that guide the processing of self­ relevant information (pg. 54)  “schematic” important to them   “aschematic” indifferent aka you don’t care  What you’re schematic on is a huge factor on what you pay  attention too and what   Sources of stability of the self o Biological underpinnings of traits  Extroversion vs. introversion o Selective memory  We don’t remember everything we’ve been exposed to so we only  bring those things to mind that support your core self o Selective attention o Interpretation of past events o Resist counter­schematic information  Social comparison theory o The hypothesis that we compare ourselves to other people in order to  evaluate our opinions, abilities, and internal states o 1. Motivated to evaluate opinions & abilities accurately o 2. When objective standards are missing, compare with others o 3. In general compare with similar others  Who do we compare ourselves to? o Upward social comparison  Comparing ourselves to people who are better than we are on  particular traits or abilities Lauren Krawitz  We do this when we seek information  If we want to swim better we compare to get info to  improve o Downward social comparison  Defensive tendencies to compare ourselves with others who are  worse off than we are  Self­enhancement   "At least I didn’t get a 20 on the test”  Social comparison bias o Peoples tendency to make recommendations that prevent similar others  from surpassing them on relevant dimensions on which they have high  standing o “Why we don’t hire candidates with our own strengths”  I’m good at math but I also have amazing social skills  Independent vs. Interdependent Self o In Western cultures, people have an independent view of themselves  Who I am depends on myself  Individualism o In Eastern, African and Latin cultures, people have an interdependent  view of themselves  Who I am depends on others around me  Collectivism o Culture changes us to prefer the one object that is unique  o Being unique or being deviant?  1. Americans positively value uniqueness  2. Asians positively value fitting in, harmony Lauren Krawitz  3. Preferences are not just personal, but shaped by culture  Gender & the Self o Women = relational interdependence o Men = collective interdependence o Gabriel & Gardner and the 20 statements test  Code answers for relational & collective interdependence o Why the sex differences?  Social roles explanation (environment)  Evolutionary explanation (nature, emotional predispositions)  Self­Regulation o Self enhancement  Types of positive illusions of self enhancing  Overestimate good qualities  Overestimate perceived control  Unrealistically optimistic  Is self­enhancement associated with a healthy or unhealthy stress  response?  Results: Higher self­enhancement associated with o Lower heart rate, blood pressure o Quicker heart rate recovery, blood pressure  recovery o Baseline lower cortisol levels  Depression and bleak reality Lauren Krawitz  Depressive realism (more in control)  Better with success & failure and social knowledge  Better balanced future predictions o Ironic effects of self­regulation  Thought suppression  Ex. Don’t think about bears and you suddenly think of them o Self­regulation as a limited resource  Ego depletion  Ex. At the end of the night you ruin your diet  Why?  Willpower is fatigued with use  How to strengthen your willpower: o Practice small self­regulatory tasks and stick to it o Sleep and rest o Don’t try this at night o Boost your positive mood o Make an implementation intention as a plan for  action (if this happens, I’ll do ____) o Getting along with others requires self regulation o Motivation: focus on overall goals ________________________________________________________________________ Lecture 3 Lauren Krawitz 1/29/14  Attribution theory: A group of theories that describe how people explain the  causes of behavior o “Why did the chicken cross the road?” o Emotional and behavioral effects  It was a mistake vs. you did it on purpose o When do we make attributions?  Unexpected things and negative (bad test grade) but why?  Fritz Heider o Founder of attribution theory o “Naïve” or “commonsense” psychology o Heider’s contributions  Internal/personal/dispositional (people prefer this)  Something within them, personality, wishes, ability  External  Other people, money, luck  Marital Attributions o “She helped me because she’s a generous person” (internal, +) o “He said something mean cause he’s stressed at work” (external, ­) o “She helped me because she wanted to impress our friends” (external, +) o “He said something mean because he’s a self­centered jerk” (internal, ­)  People make such inferences on the basis of three factors: Actions tell us more  about a person when… Lauren Krawitz o They are freely chosen than when they’re forced o Depart from the norm than when they are typical  social role/desirability o Produce only a single desirable outcome than when there are multiple  Discounting principle o As the number of possible causes for an event increases, confidence that  any one of these actual causes should decrease  Augmenting Principle o Jill is nice, pretty and smart so we don’t really know which one made him  want to ask Jill out  Excuses o Increase, lower, increase _______________________________________________________________________ Lecture 4 2/5/14 Attitudes  Attitude structure (the ABC’s): o Affect: How we feel about people or social objects o Behavior: Behavior directed at people and social objects o Cognitions: Generalized beliefs about people and social objects  Where do attitudes come from? o Personal Experience: You try something and you know  o Social Learning/Modeling: We observe things (observational learning) o Operant Conditioning: Engage in behavior (you’re rewarded or punished) Lauren Krawitz o Genetics: Just in general  Other influences will drive you to do things you don’t wish too  Mismatch between general attitudes and specific targets  Cognitive Dissonance o Giving insufficient reasons to justify behavior  Insufficient deterrence: If your mother says “don’t watch tv”, and you don’t do it  with no threat, you think oh maybe I don’t want to watch tv o Forbidden toy study: Brought toys in that were cool, said to kids I have to  leave but don’t touch the toys or I will be mad at you, and then another  condition was don’t touch the toys or I will tell your parents, then the kids  are allowed to touch the toys and the ones who’s parents would be told  rushed to play with it o Use small incentives Lecture 5 2/12/14 Source Characteristics  Attractiveness: the more you like someone the more attractive they become  Sleeper Effect: Deals with the idea of credibility (as you forget you didn’t get it  from a credible site, over time you remember it as being more credible) Message Characteristics  Message quality: Is it clear, logical, do you understand why they are trying to sell  you? “Buy our flowers so you can go to Vegas!”(No), appear to our core values?  Fear: Gets our attention o What works?  Example: Montana meth commercials in class  Receiver Characteristics o Examples: Age, mood, personality, how motivated you are o Need for cognition: Degree to which people like to think about things  deeply Lauren Krawitz  What do you want to know? Central Route to persuasion  Message is “elaborated”: the idea that when we want to remember things we think of how they connect and that is how things are elaborated  Example: Computer ad,  Peripheral Route  Heuristic processing: The more someone is making a point about why we need a  new bridge, then you start to think they may be knowledgeable about the topic Some basic assumptions  People want to have “correct” attitudes and beliefs: o You CAN have attitudes about everything, but cant process everything o You have to compromise Motivation  Personal relevance: How much it has to deal with your life  Knowledge in domain  Personally responsible Ability  Qualities of the audience: Are you too tired?  Qualities of the message: argument too fast, not making sense Central or peripheral?  If I had a choice as an advertiser, always go to central processing ______________________________________________________________________ Lecture 6 2/19/14 Social influence:   range of environmental pressure o low pressure = form of conformity, compliance = asking one to do  something for them, high pressure = obedience  Conformity depends on context


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