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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Myrissa Webb on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1010 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Bohannan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Hellenic Greece Hellenic is Greek civilization at home. (Not to be confused with Hellenistic) Political evolution. The earliest Greeks to found a civilization in the Vulcans was the Mycenaeans. (Read about it in book.) Geography. The Aegean Sea is the heart of the Greek civilization. Their coast line was so regular they couldn't make a sea-faring business. Their regions were chopped up in mountain and valleys. This will make it really hard to communicate. This created a disunity (city-states, never unified). This also effected economy because of the hard terrain. The environment was only favorable to two crops: Olives (olive oil) and Grapes (wine). These are the basis of trading with other people. Summers are hot and dry. Their internal waterways were too shallow to navigate. Geography did not promote unity. About 1200 BCE cousins of the Greeks migrated to the Vulcans and this is what we call the Donan Invasion (aka Dark Ages). This lasted about 400 years. This ultimately gave rise to the Greek city-state (Polis). They came in as tribes. This made it easy to settle in because the region was chopped up into valleys and mountains. Each valley was the perfect size to hold one tribe. As they lived they shifted from tribes to Polis. They were strongly linked to where they lived. Their whole identity was attached to place. When they started thinking in city-state and not tribes that is when Polis was formed. They believed citizen ship was based on land-ownership. They were organized usually around an acropolis (an elevated area for security from attacks and other religious purposes.) The Polis created Law and Order in the city-states. However, it started to evolve. It started kings ruling the city-states. Some of them evolved politically dominated by Oligarchy (Rule by a few). Later it will evolve mostly to Democracy. Over time they lowered land-ownership importance so that more people could be involved. Colonization. In the 8th and 7th century BCE the Greeks started to fan out throughout the Mediterranean and black sea. Why? They had to because it was getting crowded. More population and bad terrain to hold a lot of people. SO they colonized and spread out. They find better land and farm (wheat, barley). They are trading the olive oil and wine for the wheat and barley. This was huge economically. This also brings the Greeks with other peoples. Some of which included the Phoenicians, who created the Phonetic alphabet. The Greek eventually adopted their alphabet because it was easy to use (not 3,000 characters) and it didn’t take a full time job to learn and practice it. Middle class was the merchants, small town farmers, and transporters of goods. It was a small but because of colonization they grew and became more prosperous. It made them wasn’t to become more a part of the political government. The Upper class included the aristocrat soldiers. The Greeks main type of fighting was with Calvary (men on horseback). This required soldiers who practiced all the time. The Upper classmen were the only ones who didn’t need to work for money so that is where the Calvary came from. They also had more money to take care of the horses. However, as things evolved they started using a new formation called Phalanx. This used Hoplite (men on foot) armed with spears and shields. This will later influence how the Romans fought. The Middle classmen supplied the hoplites. This was very different. This aids in the rising of the Middle class. These families start to demanded political rights. (A more current example of this is during the Vietnam war. Only people 21 or older could vote. However, when the draft came out men 18 or older were selected. So they made the argument, "If these are the men protecting our country, why can’t they vote?") This aids in the evolution of Democracy. Change in Government. A guy named Cylon carried out a coup d'état (overthrow the government, a blow to the state, very sudden, usually carried out by a few) in 632 BCE. He tried to overthrow the government and fails. This brought about an alarm for things to change. The government’s response to this was to inquire a guy, Draco< to create a codification of laws.