Research in Human Development
Research in Human Development #3377 Human Development 101
Popular in Human Development through the Lifespan
Popular in Department
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Smith on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to #3377 Human Development 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Scofield in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.
Reviews for Research in Human Development
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/12/16
RESEARCH Methods used to assess theories o Think critically about a theory o Generate a research question o Form a hypothesis specific, testable prediction o Test the hypothesis Research Methods o Observation: observing natural behavior Prejudice on the playground Frustration at the water fountain Parking behaviors Strengths: Unsolicited and uncontaminated behavior Weaknesses: Limited control (e.g., structured observation in lab) Unreliable interpretations o Selfreport: items addressing a particular attitude or behavior (1,2,3) Survey (e.g., spanking is an important parenting tool.) Questionnaire (e.g., Were you spanked as a child?) Bathroom Survey: Stand or sit? Fold or crumple? Door open or closed? Strengths: Accumulate information quickly and easily Weaknesses: Scaling responses (e.g., Likert scales of 3 to +3 or 17) Wording of questions (e.g., flying or driving dangerous) Selfreports aren't always accurate. o Experiment: establishing a cause/effect relationship between variables e.g., stroop test Strength: establish causality, control Weakness: "sterile" laboratory setting leads to unnatural responses and behaviors Experiments: Variables: factors that vary across participants Height, weight, .... noses on your face Scariest sounds, intentional action, faces Variables o Independent variable: manipulated by experimenter Does time between meals affect how much is eaten? Amount of time between meals Does time fly when you're having fun? The activity placed Do blonds have more fun? Hair color Video: Whoopie Gender [man or woman which is funnier] o Dependent variable: measured response Amount eaten Speed of time Amount of fun Laughter, sound, duration o Person variables: variables that cannot be controlled e.g.: age, sex, religion. Height Experiments: Other Terms o Control group: participants that do not experience manipulation (i.e. placebo) e.g., acupuncture e.g., therapy (therapist versus journal) e.g., alcohol o Confound: variable that has unintended effect on participant responses e.g., crime rate drop in NYC (abortion) e.g., vegetarians rate meat e.g., ice cream and murder o Correlation: shows noncasual relationships between variables Positive: birth rate and storks, years married and resemblance, fat owners have fat dogs [The variables move in the same direction.] e.g., the more money you have the more you.... [The more money you have the more you shop; The less money you have the less friends you have] e.g., the more you eat the more you.... Negative: held babies cry less, GPA and TV watching, exercise and weight [The variables move in different directions.] e.g., the more money you have the less you... [The more you money you have the less you borrow money.] e.g., the less you eat the more you... o Operationalize: how concepts are measured [For example, intelligence is measured by an IQ test. If you are considered to be a very smart person, then you should score in the higher percentile [validity]. If you score really high on the test one day, then you should score in the same area the next day. There should not be a major change in the IQ score from day to day. (reliability)] Valid: measure is accurate Reliable: measure is consistent Crosssectional Design o Different groups of individuals studied at the same time 3 to 6yearolds (sharing, cheating) o Strengths Efficient, common, inexpensive o Weaknesses: Does not isolate individual development, select good ages (e.g., selfesteem and puberty) o Longitudinal Design The same group of individuals studied over time Fels (since 1929): what makes people different following depression 'UP' series (since 1967): British social class is stable across generations Strengths: Track individual development Weaknesses: Timeconsuming, expensive, attrition, no redos o Longitudinal series of crosssections studies on IQ (Schaie, 1965) o vertical (columns) crosssectional differences o diagonals longitudinal differences o horizontal (rows) cohort differences Research Sampling o Population: all individuals in a group o Sampling: the individuals selected for study o Random Sampling: individuals from the population have the same of being selected [Needing to have a large enough group to cover all classes, genders, income, race, etc. to make sure to have everyone represented] Unbiased e.g., numbers out of hot, roll dice, random numbers table Ensures the representativeness of your sample Research Ethics o Institutional Review Board (IRB): assess the risk/benefit of research and gives approval or disapproval o Participant Rights Informed Consent (must by 19 years old) Participation in voluntary Responses are confidential Withdraw without penalty Protection from risk Debriefed if deceived o Kids Consent from parent or guardian [Consent is legal agreement.] Assent from participating child [Assent is agreement in general.] Verbal agreement Smiling and cooing Not crying or fussy Analyzing Results o Data: participant responses e.g., survey answers, behavior in experiment o Statistics: formulas that detect patterns in data Mean: average across responses Median: middle most response Mode: Most frequent response Standard Deviation: distribution of responses e.g. IQ: 120, 110, 100, 100, 100, 90, 80