New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Research in Human Development

by: Caroline Smith

Research in Human Development #3377 Human Development 101

Caroline Smith
GPA 3.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover the different ways to conduct research and types of research during Human Development.
Human Development through the Lifespan
Dr. Scofield
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Human Development through the Lifespan

Popular in Department

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Smith on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to #3377 Human Development 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Scofield in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.

Similar to #3377 Human Development 101 at UA


Reviews for Research in Human Development


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/12/16
RESEARCH  Methods used to assess theories o Think critically about a theory o Generate a research question o Form a hypothesis  specific, testable prediction o Test the hypothesis  Research Methods o Observation: observing natural behavior  Prejudice on the playground  Frustration at the water fountain  Parking behaviors  Strengths:  Unsolicited and uncontaminated behavior  Weaknesses:  Limited control (e.g., structured observation in lab)  Unreliable interpretations o Self­report: items addressing a particular attitude or behavior  (1,2,3)  Survey (e.g., spanking is an important parenting tool.)   Questionnaire (e.g., Were you spanked as a child?)  Bathroom   Survey: Stand or sit? Fold or crumple? Door  open or closed?  Strengths:  Accumulate information quickly and easily  Weaknesses:  Scaling responses (e.g., Likert scales of ­3 to +3 or 1­7)  Wording of questions (e.g., flying or driving  dangerous)  Self­reports aren't always accurate.  o Experiment: establishing a cause/effect relationship between  variables  e.g., stroop test  Strength: establish causality, control   Weakness: "sterile" laboratory setting leads to unnatural  responses and behaviors   Experiments:  Variables: factors that vary across participants  Height, weight, .... noses on your face  Scariest sounds, intentional action, faces  Variables o Independent variable: manipulated by experimenter  Does time between meals affect how much is eaten? Amount  of time between meals  Does time fly when you're having fun? The activity placed  Do blonds have more fun? Hair color  Video: Whoopie Gender [man or woman which is  funnier] o Dependent variable: measured response  Amount eaten  Speed of time  Amount of fun  Laughter, sound, duration o Person variables: variables that cannot be controlled  e.g.: age, sex, religion. Height  Experiments: Other Terms o Control group: participants that do not experience manipulation  (i.e. placebo)  e.g., acupuncture  e.g., therapy (therapist versus journal)   e.g., alcohol o Confound: variable that has unintended effect on participant  responses  e.g., crime rate drop in NYC (abortion)  e.g., vegetarians rate meat  e.g., ice cream and murder o Correlation: shows non­casual relationships between variables  Positive: birth rate and storks, years married and  resemblance, fat owners have fat dogs [The variables move in the same direction.]  e.g., the more money you have the more you.... [The  more money you have the more you shop; The less  money you have the less friends you have]  e.g., the more you eat the more you....  Negative: held babies cry less, GPA and TV watching,  exercise and weight [The variables move in different  directions.]  e.g., the more money you have the less you... [The  more you money you have the less you borrow money.]  e.g., the less you eat the more you...  o Operationalize: how concepts are measured [For example,  intelligence is measured by an IQ test. If you are considered to be a  very smart person, then you should score in the higher percentile  [validity]. If you score really high on the test one day, then you  should score in the same area the next day. There should not be a  major change in the IQ score from day to day. (reliability)]  Valid: measure is accurate  Reliable: measure is consistent  Cross­sectional Design o Different groups of individuals studied at the same time  3­ to 6­year­olds (sharing, cheating) o Strengths  Efficient, common, inexpensive o Weaknesses:  Does not isolate individual development, select good ages  (e.g., self­esteem and puberty) o Longitudinal Design  The same group of individuals studied over time  Fels (since 1929): what makes people different  following depression  'UP' series (since 1967): British social class is stable  across generations   Strengths:  Track individual development  Weaknesses:  Time­consuming, expensive, attrition, no re­dos o Longitudinal series of cross­sections  studies on IQ (Schaie, 1965) o  vertical (columns) ­ cross­sectional differences o diagonals ­ longitudinal differences o horizontal (rows) ­ cohort differences  Research Sampling o Population: all individuals in a group  o Sampling: the individuals selected for study  o Random Sampling: individuals from the population have the same  of being selected [Needing to have a large enough group to cover  all classes, genders, income, race, etc. to make sure to have  everyone represented]  Unbiased  e.g., numbers out of hot, roll dice, random numbers  table  Ensures the representativeness of your sample   Research Ethics o Institutional Review Board (IRB): assess the risk/benefit of  research and gives approval or disapproval o Participant Rights  Informed Consent (must by 19 years old)  Participation in voluntary  Responses are confidential  Withdraw without penalty  Protection from risk  Debriefed if deceived  o Kids  Consent from parent or guardian [Consent is legal  agreement.]  Assent from participating child [Assent is agreement in  general.]  Verbal agreement  Smiling and cooing  Not crying or fussy  Analyzing Results o Data: participant responses  e.g., survey answers, behavior in experiment o Statistics: formulas that detect patterns in data   Mean: average across responses   Median: middle ­ most response  Mode: Most frequent response  Standard Deviation: distribution of responses                     e.g. IQ: 120, 110, 100, 100, 100, 90, 80 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.