Human Anatomy I Integumentary System
Human Anatomy I Integumentary System BIO 2440
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katelyn Farris on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 2440 at William Carey University taught by Mr. Griffis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy I in Biology at William Carey University.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Integumentary System Integumentary System Includes: -Skin -Accessory structures: -sweat glands -oil glands -nails -hair -sensory receptors Function: -Protection -infection -microbes -water loss -Sensation -includes sensory receptors -Temperature Regulation -Vitamin D Reproduction -by exposure to sunlight -Excretion -some wastes come out by the sweat and oil glands The Skin -Covering of the outside of the body -2 Main Layers: 1. Epidermis -superficial layer -thinner layer -resists abrasion and water loss 2. Dermis -deeper layer -made of connective tissue -tough -connected to the subcutaneous tissue -used to be known as the hypodermis Epidermis -Made of stratified squamous epithelium -The cells of the epithelium are the main cell types called keratinocytes -3 types of specialized cells: 1. Melanocyte: secretes the skin pigment—melanin 2. Langerhans’ cell: phagocytes—engulf foreign material and microbes 3. Merkel Cell: associated with a nerve; sensory receptors that detect the lightest touch Keratinocytes -Regenerate really quickly; the new cells are produced on the bottom and are pushed out, as they are pushed out they die -As they die they fill with more keratin -Eventually they slough of -The dead layers protect Layers of Epidermal Epithelium 1. Stratum Basal -bottom layer -single layer of cuboidal cells -the cells that can continue to regenerate; undergoes mitosis 2. Stratum Spinosum -2nddeepest layer -spiny appearance 3. Stratrd Granulosum -3 layer -appears granular 4. Stratum Lucidum -4 layer -only in the palms and soles of the feet 5. Stratum Corneum -most superficial layer -thicker layer -completely dead Skin Cancers -Basal Cell Carcinoma -UV light damages Stratum Basal and starts growing into a tumor -can be cured most times -Squamous Cell Carcinoma -UV light afects the upper layers of the epidermis -can be cured -Melanoma -can be aggressive -melanocytes are afected Burns st -1 degree burns -epidermis is damaged -2nddegree burns -epidermis and parts of the dermis is damaged -3 degree burns -epidermis, dermis, and underlying tissue is damaged Skin Grafts -Full thickness -takes epidermis and dermis -Split thickness -take epidermis and parts of the dermis Dermis -Under epidermis -Made of connective tissue -Contains accessory structures -hair follicles -nerve endings -blood vessels -Has 2 layers 1. Papillary Layer -made of areolar tissue -contains papilli—finger-like projections that help tie the dermis to the epidermis -thinner layer 2. Reticular Layer -made of dense irregular connective tissue -deeper and thicker layer Subcutaneous Tissue -Tissue beneath the dermis -Not a part of the skin -Made of areolar connective tissue -Connects the dermis to the underlying tissue Hair -Made of epithelial tissue -2 main parts 1. Root -underneath the skin -Bulb: enlarged deepest part of the root -Matrix: located in the bulb and grows new cells for the hair -grows out of the hair follicle 2. Shaft -outside of the skin -has 3 layers of tissue 1. the very middle of the hair: Medulla 2. the layer on the outside of the medulla: Cortex 3. the outermost layer: Cuticle -Hair takes on the shape of the hair follicle -Grows for a while until eventually a new hair comes out behind the old one -Hair color is produced by melanocytes -Each hair follicle has a muscle attached to it called erector pili which makes the hair stand up Glands -Two major types in the integument 1. Sebaceous -multicellular -oil glands -secretes an oil called sebum -attached to the hair follicle and secretes into the hair follicle 2. Sweat Glands A. Merocrine Gland -major type: found all over the skin -secretes directly on to the skin surface -secretes a thin watery substance with electrolytes in it -coiled, tubular B. Apocrine Gland -found only in the axilla and groin region -secretes into the hair follicle -secretion is a mixture of oil and water -when secreted the body’s normal flora begins using it to aid in digestion thus resulting in B.O. Nails -Nail Root -beneath the skin -Nail Body -the part you can see -Nail Bed -the skin under the nail body -Nail Matrix -part that produces cells for the nail -Cuticle -the skin growing over the top of the nail body Sensory Receptors -Things that detect sensation -Merkel Cell is the only one in the epidermis -Sensory Receptors in the Dermis 1. Meissnar’s Corpuscle -encapsulated -superficial in dermis -detects touch 2. Pacinian Corpuscle -deep in the dermis -encapsulated -superficial in dermis -detects touch 3. Free Nerve Endings -not encapsulated -detect hot, cold, and pain 4. Root Hair Plexus -free nerve ending around hair follicle -detects movement of the hair