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Chemistry 121, Week 2 Notes,

by: Lindsey Notetaker

Chemistry 121, Week 2 Notes, CHEM121A

Marketplace > University of Nevada - Las Vegas > Chemistry > CHEM121A > Chemistry 121 Week 2 Notes
Lindsey Notetaker

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About this Document

These notes contain the lecture notes from the professor and half of chapter two notes and vocabulary as the professor has not finished discussing chapter two. Hope these help (:
General Chemistry 1
Dr. Berg
Class Notes
Chemistry, General Chemistry, history, chemical
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Notetaker on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM121A at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by Dr. Berg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Nevada - Las Vegas.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
Introduction to Chemistry I-Week 2 Notes (September 5, 2016) Chapter 1: Matter and Measurements  Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Key to my notes: all notes that are taken from the lecture will be the first section, notes I take  from the textbook will be the second section, and the vocabulary words from the chapter with  definitions will be the last sections! (:  Lecture Notes   Chapter 1: Matter and Measurements    Need to know about the acceptable range of data  Read 1 digit after the calibration number   Record ALL significant figures  o Rules for Significant Figures   All non zero digits are significant  Zeros between two significant figures are themselves significant   Zeros at the beginning of a number are never significant   Zeros at the end of a number are significant if a decimal point is present  Bar over any zero means that it counts as being significant  o Write in scientific notation to cleanly show significant figures   When doing conversions, the units should cancel out so that you are only left with what  you are trying to find   Density can be used as a conversion factor  Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions  Antoine Lavoisier is the father of modern chemistry  o He was killed by guillotine   With atoms mass is never destroyed   Percentages are not changed but the amount of mass does when looking at different size  samples of the same compound   Different mass ratios should be recorded as integers between atoms in a compound   Atoms are the fundamental building block of matter  o Dalton in 1808 published “A New System of Chemical Philosophy” which  contained his model an atomic theory  Said that all matter consists of atoms and cannot be broken  Now know that atoms that atoms be broken down into subparticles  Atoms are permanent and cannot be changed   Now know that with nuclear reactions it can cause elements to be  changed  Atoms of the same element are identical Introduction to Chemistry I-Week 2 Notes (September 5, 2016)  Now know that isotopes exist which are atoms of elements with  different masses  Compounds have specific ratio  Few compounds have slight variations of their ratios   Ratios always whole numbers when compared to other atoms   JJ Thomson measured the charge to mass electron  “Millikan oil drop experiment”  o Robert Millikan in 1909 determined the size of the charge on an electron o 1 of top 10 science experiments  o Figured out the mass of an electron  Plum pudding vs. raisin muffin  o The debate as how the atom is made up  Science discoveries often found by accident   Rutherford found 3 different types of radiation  o Alpha are positive charged particles   Known now as helium nucleus   Protons  o Beta are negative charged particles   Known as electrons  o Gamma are neutrally charged particles   Known as electromagnetic waves   Neutrons   Gold foil experiment by Rutherford o Proved there was a nucleus  o 50 years later show electrons were made up of quarks  Do not need to know what that is for this class (:  o Most of the nucleus is 1000  of whole atom  Holds most of the mass though of the atom  Henry Moseley discovered the atomic number of elements but sadly died in World War I. o After that Britain made all scientists exempt from the draft   Dalton is AMU which is the unit of atomic masses because they are so small   There is always some uncertainty with numbers o Uncertainty:  value but range is where the definite value is o Range = value +/­ absolute uncertainty  o Fractional uncertainty= (absolute uncertainty)/(value) Textbook Notes John Dalton (1766­1844) came up with the atomic theory  o Each element is composed of extremely small particles called atoms Introduction to Chemistry I-Week 2 Notes (September 5, 2016) o All atoms of a given element are identical, but atoms of different elements are  different from the atoms of all other elements  o Atoms of one element cannot be changed into atoms of a different element by  chemical reactions; atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions o Compounds are formed when atoms of more than one element combine; a given  compound always has the same relative number and kinds of elements  JJ Thomson (1856­1940) discovered the electron through cathode rays o Also found the charge to mass ratio  Robert Millikan (1868­1953) found charge of electron Henri Becquerel (18520 1908) discovered radioactivity  Ernest Rutherford (1871­1937) discovered three types of radiation o Alpha­positive charged particles  Protons discovered in 1919 o Beta­negative charged, high speed particles   Electrons It takes 1,837 electrons to make the mass of a proton or neutron o Gamma­neutral charged, no mass particles   Neutrons discovered in 1932 by James Chadwick (1891­1972) The plum pudding model of an atom was that an atom was a huge uniform sphere of  positively charged and there were negative electrons spread throughout  o Rutherford and Marsden disproved this  Most important tool for chemist is the periodic table  Most molecular substances encounter contain only nonmetals  Molecular formula and empirical formula are NOT always the same Metals tend to lose electrons to form cations as nonmetals tend to gain an electron  forming anions Ionic compounds tend to be composed of metals bonded with nonmetals elements want to have the same number of electrons as the noble gases  Vocabulary Words      Atom: the smallest representative particle of an element       Subatomic Particles: particles such as protons, neutrons, and electrons that are smaller  than an atom      Cathode Rays: streams of electrons  that are produced when a high voltage is applied to  electrodes in an evacuated tube      Electron: a negatively charged subatomic particle found outside the atomic nucleus; it is  part of all atoms. An electron mass 1/1,837 times that of a proton  Introduction to Chemistry I-Week 2 Notes (September 5, 2016)      Radioactivity: the spontaneous disintegration of an unstable atomic nucleus with  accompanying emission of radiation      Nuclear Model: model of the atom with a nucleus containing protons and neutrons and  with electrons in the space outside the nucleus       Nucleus: the very small, very dense, positively charged portion of an atom; it is  comprised of  protons and neutrons       Neutrons: an electrically neutral particle found in the nucleus of an atom; it has  approximately the same mass as a proton       Proton: a positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom      Electronic Charge: the negative charge carried by an electron; it has a magnitude of  1.602 X 10^­19 C      Angstrom: a common non­SI unit of length, denoted Å, that is used to measure atomic  dimensions. 1 Å=10^­10 meters      Atomic Mass Unit(amu): a unit based on the value of exactly 12 amu for the mass of   the isotope of carbon that has six protons and six neutrons in the nucleus   Atomic Number: the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element       Atomic Weight: the average mass of the atoms of an element in atomic mass units  (amu); it is numerically equally to the mass in grams of one mole of the element       Mass Number: the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of a  particular atom      Isotope: atoms of the same element containing different number of neutrons and  therefore having different masses      Mass Spectrometer: an instrument used to measure the precise masses and relative  amounts of atomic and molecular ions       Periodic Table: the arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic number, with  elements having similar properties  placed in vertical columns       Period: the row of elements that lie in a horizontal row on the periodic table       Group: elements that are in the same column of the periodic table; elements within the  same group or family exhibit similarities in their chemical formula       Metallic Elements (metals): elements that are usually solids at room temperature,  exhibits high electrical and heat conductivity, and appear lustrous. Most of the elements  on the periodic table are metals        Nonmetallic Elements (nonmetals): elements in the upper right corner of the periodic  table; nonmetals differ from metals in their physical and chemical properties  Introduction to Chemistry I-Week 2 Notes (September 5, 2016)      Metalloids: elements that lie along the diagonal line separating the metals from the  nonmetals in the periodic table; properties of metalloids are intermediate between those  of metal and nonmetals      Chemical Formula: a notation that uses chemical symbols with numerical subscripts to  convey the relative proportions of atoms of the different elements in a substance      Diatomic Molecule: a molecule composed of only two atoms       Molecular Compound:  a compound that consists of molecules       Molecular Formula: a chemical formula that indicates the actual number of atoms of  each element in one molecule of a substance       Empirical Formula: a chemical formula that shows the kinds of atoms and their relative  numbers in a substance in the smallest possible whole­number ratios      Structural Formula: a formula that shows not only number and kinds of atoms in the  molecules but also the arrangement (connections)  of the atoms       Ion: electrically charged atom or group of atoms (polyatomic ion); ions can be positively  or negatively charged, depending whether electrons are lost (positive) or gained  (negative) by the atom      Cation: a positively charged ion      Anion: a negatively charged ion      Polyatomic Ion: an electrically charged group f two or more atoms        Ionic Compound: a compound composed of cations and anions


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