Introduction to Public Health, Week 2 notes
Introduction to Public Health, Week 2 notes PBH205
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Notetaker on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PBH205 at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by Dr. Jin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public Health in Public Health at University of Nevada - Las Vegas.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Introduction to Public Health-Week 2 Notes (September 5, 2016) Chapter 2: Why is Public Health so Controversial? Chapter 3: Powers and Responsibilities of the Government Key to my notes: all notes that are taken from the lecture will be the first section, notes I take from the textbook will be the second section, and the vocabulary words from the chapter with definitions will be the last sections! (: Lecture Notes Chapter 2: Why is Public Health so Controversial? Market justice is based on individual responsibility Social justice is based on what is good for the common wealth Need to be based on HONEST science Health is primarily of the state There are federal agencies that are involved with public health o Department of health and human services o State health department o Local public health agencies There are non governmental agencies that are also involved with public health o Disease focused ones o Philanthropic ones People in the beginning thought that diseases were super natural Important people to know what they discovered o James Lind discovered the cause of scurvy Realized that scurvy was caused by not having enough citrus fruit in sailors diets o Edward Jenner discovered how to avoid containing smallpox Made a vaccine for small pox that was spread through inhalation of airborne virus o John Snow discovered the cause of Cholera The cause was from unfiltered water that the people were drinking and using o William Budd discovered the cause of Typhoid The cause was from unfiltered water that the people were drinking and using just like cholera o Florence Nightingale help to improve sanitary conditions at hospitals worldwide She would use hot water to clean the nursing tools before she used them on the patients and infections decreased Textbook Notes Chapter 2: Why is Public Health so Controversial? Page 1 of 5 Introduction to Public Health-Week 2 Notes (September 5, 2016) Public health has always been controversial Public health is a huge social movement of trying to create a healthier environment for the people Dan E. Beauchamp is a public health philosopher o Says that there needs to be a way of doing justice for all o Views these as fundamental rights and public health is in charge of this for all Minimal income Basic housing Employment Education Health care o In 1988 it was accepted that these were the fundamental rights and they fell in the hands of public health professions There are three main issues that are debated repeatedly over in public health actions o Economics Typically causes tax increase, decrease of jobs, or increase prices Industries do not like change so they do not want to have regulations that cost them Americans find it hard to see the benefit in the long run so they get mad not seeing individual benefits o Individual Liberties Government in charge of protecting the most and it becomes an issue as to how much they infringe on the peoples own rights Example would be the smoking laws that says people can’t smoke in certain places because it does infringe on those who want to smoke “Tragedy of the Commons” A problem that occurs when individuals overuse a shared resource to the extent that demand overwhelms supply and the resource becomes unavailable to some or all. Garrett Hardin used the example that if every herdsman has as many cows as they want then the land would no longer be useful and most if not all the cows would die due to not enough food, but if they agreed to have the same number of cows then it would allow for the land to stay healthy and everyone gets to keep their cows Page 2 of 5 Introduction to Public Health-Week 2 Notes (September 5, 2016) Today the “commons” would be water, air, and elements like that that no one person can own Public health needs to focus on the whole and what will help the most over individual liberties Example with the smoking, that is why there are laws that businesses have smoking areas and nonsmoking areas for those that do and don’t smoke o Moral and Religious Opposition When it comes to sex education, many religious groups think it promotes immoral and bad behavior Another example would be AIDS No matter what people will find something to argue about The government interferes with science o February 2004, Union of Concerned Scientist released a report called “Scientific Integrity in Policymaking” which reported that the government had suppressed or misrepresented scientific information based on political agenda o Government had been known to replace credible scientist with people who had or has financial ties to the industries being investigated Chapter 3: Powers and Responsibilities of the Government Government’s role is determined by law o All three levels need to follow the law Federal State Local Public health is primarily the state’s responsibility Federal government in charge of public health when it’s from state to state o FDA keeps the food traveling from state to state healthy for all o Has been widening their rule over public health by providing funding if the state follows their guidelines Funding for the interstate highway if the states make a law requiring helmets to be worn by motorcyclist Then started to decline in 1980 to give the states more power Police force is invoked and needed for public health assistance in three instances o To prevent a person from harming others o To defend the interest of incompetent persons such as a child or mentally retarded o To protect a person from harming himself or herself Page 3 of 5 Introduction to Public Health-Week 2 Notes (September 5, 2016) OSHA makes regulations for workers across the United States of America Funding health care is typically job of the state Health care agencies are separate from one another and it makes communication difficult o Environmental issues o Social services o Aging o Mental health Funding for state health departments come mostly by taxes and federal grants Surgeon General is the leading spokesperson on public health NIH is the greatest biomedical research complex in the world Not all agencies that play a part in public health are with the government o Many philanthropic foundations provide funding for research Vocabulary Words Note: These are in order as they showed up in the chapter, not in alphabetical Chapter 2: Why is Public Health so Controversial? Communicable Disease: infectious disease that spreads directly from one person to another Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS): the most severe phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). People infected with HIV are said to have AIDS when they get certain opportunistic infections or when their CD4+ cell count drops below 200 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) Chapter 3: Powers and Responsibilities of the Government Food and Drug Administration (FDA): the federal agency that ensures the safety and nutritional value of the food supply; evaluate all new drugs, food additives, and colorings; and regulates medical devices, vaccines, diagnostic tests, animal drugs, and cosmetics Medicaid: a federally aided, stateoperated and administered program that provides medical services to eligible lowincome populations Page 4 of 5 Introduction to Public Health-Week 2 Notes (September 5, 2016) Medicare: a national health insurance program for persons over age 65 and certain younger persons who are disabled Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA): the federal agency, part of the Department of Labor, responsible for occupational health and the prevention of occupational injury National Institutes of Health (NIH): the primary federal agency for biomedical research. the NIH has its own laboratories and also provides funding to biomedical scientists at universities and research centers Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): the federal agency responsible for prevention and cleanup of water pollution and air pollution, control of toxic substances, and other issues of environmental contamination Page 5 of 5
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