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Introduction to Public Health, Week 2 notes

by: Lindsey Notetaker

Introduction to Public Health, Week 2 notes PBH205

Marketplace > University of Nevada - Las Vegas > Public Health > PBH205 > Introduction to Public Health Week 2 notes
Lindsey Notetaker

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About this Document

These are notes from the lecture that the teacher went over and then vocabulary and textbook notes that I find to be important to know.
Introduction to Public Health
Dr. Jin
Class Notes
history, Public Health
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Notetaker on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PBH205 at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by Dr. Jin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public Health in Public Health at University of Nevada - Las Vegas.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
Introduction to Public Health-Week 2 Notes (September 5, 2016) Chapter 2: Why is Public Health so Controversial?  Chapter 3: Powers and Responsibilities of the Government  Key to my notes: all notes that are taken from the lecture will be the first section, notes I take  from the textbook will be the second section, and the vocabulary words from the chapter with  definitions will be the last sections! (:  Lecture Notes   Chapter 2: Why is Public Health so Controversial?   Market justice is based on individual responsibility Social justice is based on what is good for the common wealth  Need to be based on HONEST science Health is primarily of the state   There are federal agencies that are involved with public health o Department of health and human services o State health department  o Local public health agencies  There are non governmental agencies that are also involved with public health o Disease focused ones  o Philanthropic ones   People in the beginning thought that diseases were super natural   Important people to know what they discovered  o James Lind discovered the cause of scurvy   Realized that scurvy was caused by not having enough citrus fruit in  sailors diets  o Edward Jenner discovered how to avoid containing smallpox  Made a vaccine for small pox that was spread through inhalation of  airborne virus o John Snow discovered the cause of Cholera  The cause was from unfiltered water that the people were drinking and  using o William Budd discovered the cause of Typhoid  The cause was from unfiltered water that the people were drinking and  using just like cholera  o Florence Nightingale help to improve sanitary conditions at hospitals worldwide  She would use hot water to clean the nursing tools before she used them  on the patients and infections decreased  Textbook Notes  Chapter 2: Why is Public Health so Controversial?   Page 1 of 5 Introduction to Public Health-Week 2 Notes (September 5, 2016) Public health has always been controversial  Public health is a huge social movement of trying to create a healthier environment for  the people  Dan E. Beauchamp is a public health philosopher  o  Says that there needs to be a way of doing justice for all o Views these as fundamental rights and public health is in charge of this for all  Minimal income   Basic housing  Employment   Education   Health care  o In 1988 it was accepted that these were the fundamental rights and they fell in the  hands of public health professions There are three main issues that are debated repeatedly over in public health actions  o Economics   Typically causes tax increase, decrease of jobs, or increase prices   Industries do not like change so they do not want to have regulations that  cost them   Americans find it hard to see the benefit in the long run so they get mad  not seeing individual benefits  o Individual Liberties   Government in charge of protecting the most and it becomes an issue as to how much they infringe on the peoples own rights   Example would be the smoking laws that says people can’t smoke  in certain places because it does infringe on those who want to  smoke   “Tragedy of the Commons”   A problem that occurs when individuals overuse a shared resource  to the extent that demand overwhelms supply and the resource  becomes unavailable to some or all.  Garrett Hardin used the example that if every herdsman has as  many cows as they want then the land would no longer be useful  and most if not all the cows would die due to not enough food, but  if they agreed to have the same number of cows then it would  allow for the land to stay healthy and everyone gets to keep their  cows Page 2 of 5 Introduction to Public Health-Week 2 Notes (September 5, 2016)  Today the “commons” would be water, air, and elements like that  that no one person can own  Public health needs to focus on the whole and what will help the most over individual liberties   Example with the smoking, that is why there are laws that  businesses have smoking areas and nonsmoking areas for those  that do and don’t smoke o Moral and Religious Opposition  When it comes to sex education, many religious groups think it promotes  immoral and bad behavior   Another example would be AIDS   No matter what people will find something to argue about  The government interferes with science  o February 2004, Union of Concerned Scientist released a report called “Scientific  Integrity in Policymaking” which reported that the government had suppressed or  misrepresented scientific information based on political agenda o Government had been known to replace credible scientist with people who had or  has financial ties to the industries being investigated  Chapter 3: Powers and Responsibilities of the Government    Government’s role is determined by law o All three levels need to follow the law  Federal   State   Local  Public health is primarily the state’s responsibility   Federal government in charge of public health when it’s from state to state  o FDA keeps the food traveling from state to state healthy for all  o Has been widening their rule over public health by providing funding if the state  follows their guidelines   Funding for the interstate highway if the states make a law requiring  helmets to be worn by motorcyclist  Then started to decline in 1980 to give the states more power   Police force is invoked and needed for public health assistance in three instances  o To prevent a person from harming others  o To defend the interest of incompetent persons such as a child or mentally retarded o To protect a person from harming himself or herself  Page 3 of 5 Introduction to Public Health-Week 2 Notes (September 5, 2016)  OSHA makes regulations for workers across the United States of America   Funding health care is typically job of the state   Health care agencies are separate from one another and it makes communication difficult o Environmental issues  o Social services  o Aging  o Mental health   Funding for state health departments come mostly by taxes and federal grants   Surgeon General is the leading spokesperson on public health   NIH is the greatest biomedical research complex in the world   Not all agencies that play a part in public health are with the government  o Many philanthropic foundations provide funding for research Vocabulary Words Note: These are in order as they showed up in the chapter, not in alphabetical   Chapter 2: Why is Public Health so Controversial?    Communicable Disease: infectious disease that spreads directly from one person to  another  Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS): the most severe phase of  infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). People infected with HIV  are said to have AIDS when they get certain opportunistic infections or when their  CD4+ cell count drops below 200     Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): the virus that causes acquired immune  deficiency syndrome (AIDS)   Chapter 3: Powers and Responsibilities of the Government    Food and Drug Administration (FDA): the federal agency that ensures the safety and  nutritional value of the food supply; evaluate all new drugs, food additives, and  colorings; and regulates medical devices, vaccines, diagnostic tests, animal drugs, and  cosmetics  Medicaid: a federally aided, state­operated and administered program that provides   medical services to eligible low­income populations Page 4 of 5 Introduction to Public Health-Week 2 Notes (September 5, 2016)  Medicare: a national health insurance program for persons over age 65 and certain  younger persons who are disabled  Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA): the federal agency, part of  the Department of Labor, responsible for occupational health and the prevention of  occupational injury  National Institutes of Health (NIH): the primary federal agency for biomedical  research. the NIH has its own laboratories and also provides funding to biomedical  scientists at universities and research centers   Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): the federal agency responsible for  prevention and cleanup of water pollution and air pollution, control of toxic substances,  and other issues of environmental contamination  Page 5 of 5


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