Anatomy and Physiology Notes Part 2
Anatomy and Physiology Notes Part 2 BSCI201
Popular in Human Anatomy and Physiology 1
Popular in Biology
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shruti Gautam on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSCI201 at University of Maryland taught by Justicia Opoku-Edusei in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Biology at University of Maryland.
Reviews for Anatomy and Physiology Notes Part 2
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/12/16
Organic Compounds Carbohydratesliterally hydrated carbons monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides Carbons are covalently linked to one another Monosaccharides and disaccharides are soluble in water Polysaccharides: ● In animals→ glycogen ● In plants→ starch ● Insoluble in water Monosaccharides: general formula is (CH2O)n ● Hexose with an n=6→ deoxyribose, ribose ● Pentose with an n=5→ glucose, fructose, galactose ○ Fructose and Galactose will always be converted to Glucose and utilized in the cellular respiration process to make ATP ○ Neurons prefer glucose from blood, this is different from other organs because they are able to utilize other types of energy sources in the absence of glucose (i.e ketone bodies) Disaccharides: composed of 2 hexose sugars, typically sweet and soluble in water Examples ● Lactose= Glucose + Galactose ○ Broken down by lactase in the GI tract, those who are lactose intolerant lack proper concentration of this enzyme ● Maltose= Glucose + Glucose ● Sucrose= Glucose + Fructose Polysaccharides: long chains of glucose, not sweet and not soluble in water Chains are made through dehydration reactions Lipids 4 types of fats: 1. Neutral fats or triglycerides a. Most abundant b. Glycerol + 3 fatty acid chains c. 2 types i. Saturated 1. Hydrated with H 2. Solid at room temperature 3. Increase the amount of LDL in the body (lipids are less dense compared to protein) → transported in aq blood as lipoproteins a. There is a spectrum of Lipid and protein complexes that vary from vLDL to HDL b. LDL is a major part of cholesterol i. Cholesterol is delivered by LDL to plasma membrane→ purpose of plasma membrane is to maintain integrity of the membrane ii. LDL provides cholesterol to cells that synthesize steroid hormones→ steroidogenic cells c. Increase in LDL is associated with plaque buildup or atherosclerosis i. Needs bypass surgery or stent placement to reverse the damage of plaque buildup that occurs over time with a high saturated fat and trans fat diet ii. Blood pressure will increase because area blood can travel is constricted by the fat→ impedes blood flow 1. Usually an organ has 1 artery and multiple draining veins iii. High plaque buildup can lead to a cardiac infarction or myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke or brain attack (cerebrovascular disease), and even death d. HDL is “good cholesterol” and carries away LDL from the arteries to the liver, where the cholesterol is degraded and eliminated from the body ii. Unsaturated→ at least 2 double bound in the carbon chain, liquid at room temperature 2. Phospholipids a. Phosphate group + 2 fatty acid chains + glycerol b. Forms a bilayer to make the plasma membrane c. Will also form a micelle→ important in the small intestines, and the formation of the eicosanoids 3. Steroids a. Derived from cholesterol 4. Eicosanoids a. Derived from arachidonic acids and phospholipids b. Can make leukotrienes and prostaglandins i. Leukotrienes 1. Important in allergic reactions ii. Prostaglandins 1. Active in blood clot formation by way of thromboxane a2 a. Blood Clot formation steps: i. Vascular spasms→ vasoconstriction ii. Platelet aggregations→ seal area iii. Blood coagulations or clot formation b. Thromboxane a2 control step 1 and 2 of blood clot formation c. Aspirin will prevent cyclooxygenase activity which is a precursor to thromboxane a2 i. People with thromboembolic diseases typically take aspirin to prevent clot formation Proteins ● Fibrous→ not affected by pH and temp ● globular→ affected by pH and temp Building blocks of proteins are amino acids→ there are 20 There are 9 essential amino acids that must come from your diet There are 11 other amino acids that the body is able to synthesize→ nonessential amino acids There are 4 different structural elements to proteins→ the way a protein fold will affect its function 1. Primary → this is the strand of amino acid that emerges from the ribosome after transcription 2. Secondary→ alpha helix and beta sheets, come together by way of Hydrogen bonds 3. Tertiary→ alpha helix and beta sheets come together and fold on themselves, by more hydrogen bonds 4. Quaternary→ at least 2 chains combine typically though disulfide bridges Collagen is a very strong protein that is composed of alpha helixes
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'