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Anatomy and Physiology Notes Part 2

by: Shruti Gautam

Anatomy and Physiology Notes Part 2 BSCI201

Marketplace > University of Maryland > Biology > BSCI201 > Anatomy and Physiology Notes Part 2
Shruti Gautam

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These notes cover the 4 most basic macromolecules, carbohydrates, protein, DNA, lipids.
Human Anatomy and Physiology 1
Justicia Opoku-Edusei
Class Notes
bsci201, BSCI, 201, anatomy, Physiology, Macromolecules
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shruti Gautam on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSCI201 at University of Maryland taught by Justicia Opoku-Edusei in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Biology at University of Maryland.

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Date Created: 09/12/16
Organic Compounds   Carbohydrates­­​literally hydrated carbons   monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides  Carbons are covalently linked to one another    Monosaccharides and disaccharides are soluble in water   Polysaccharides:   ● In animals→ glycogen  ● In plants→ starch   ● Insoluble in water   Monosaccharides: general formula is (CH2O)n  ● Hexose with an n=6→ deoxyribose, ribose  ● Pentose with an n=5→ glucose, fructose, galactose   ○ Fructose and Galactose will always be converted to Glucose and utilized in the  cellular respiration process to make ATP  ○ Neurons prefer glucose from blood, this is different from other organs because  they are able to utilize other types of energy sources in the absence of glucose  (i.e ketone bodies)  Disaccharides: composed of 2 hexose sugars, typically sweet and soluble in water   Examples   ● Lactose= Glucose + Galactose  ○ Broken down by lactase in the GI tract, those who are lactose intolerant lack  proper concentration of this enzyme   ● Maltose= Glucose + Glucose   ● Sucrose=  Glucose + Fructose  Polysaccharides: long chains of glucose, not sweet and not soluble in water   Chains are made through dehydration reactions  Lipids  4 types of fats:   1. Neutral fats or triglycerides  a. Most abundant   b. Glycerol + 3 fatty acid chains  c. 2 types  i. Saturated  1. Hydrated with H  2. Solid at room temperature    3. Increase the amount of LDL in the body (lipids are less dense  compared to protein) → transported in aq blood as lipoproteins   a. There is a spectrum of Lipid and protein complexes that  vary from vLDL to HDL  b. LDL is a major part of cholesterol  i. Cholesterol is delivered by LDL to plasma  membrane→ purpose of plasma membrane is to  maintain integrity of the membrane  ii. LDL provides cholesterol to cells that synthesize  steroid hormones→ steroidogenic cells   c. Increase in LDL is associated with plaque buildup or  atherosclerosis  i. Needs bypass surgery or stent placement to  reverse the damage of plaque buildup that occurs  over time with a high saturated fat and trans fat diet  ii. Blood pressure will increase because area blood  can travel is constricted by the fat→ impedes blood  flow  1. Usually an organ has 1 artery and multiple  draining veins  iii. High plaque buildup can lead to a cardiac infarction  or myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke or brain  attack (cerebrovascular disease), and even death    d. HDL is “good cholesterol” and carries away LDL from the  arteries to the liver, where the cholesterol is degraded and  eliminated from the body  ii. Unsaturated→ at least 2 double bound in the carbon chain, liquid at room  temperature    2. Phospholipids  a. Phosphate group + 2 fatty acid chains + glycerol  b. Forms a bilayer to make the plasma membrane   c. Will also form a micelle→ important in the small intestines, and the formation of  the eicosanoids   3. Steroids  a. Derived from cholesterol   4. Eicosanoids  a. Derived from arachidonic acids and phospholipids  b. Can make leukotrienes and prostaglandins  i. Leukotrienes   1. Important in allergic reactions  ii. Prostaglandins    1. Active in blood clot formation by way of thromboxane a2   a. Blood Clot formation steps:  i. Vascular spasms→ vasoconstriction   ii. Platelet aggregations→ seal area  iii. Blood coagulations or clot formation  b. Thromboxane a2 control step 1 and 2 of blood clot  formation  c. Aspirin will prevent cyclooxygenase activity which is a  precursor to thromboxane a2    i. People with thromboembolic diseases typically take  aspirin to prevent clot formation                              Proteins­­  ● Fibrous→ not affected by pH and temp   ● globular→ affected by pH and temp   Building blocks of proteins are amino acids→ there are 20   There are 9 essential amino acids that must come from your diet   There are 11 other amino acids that the body is able to synthesize→ nonessential amino acids   There are 4 different structural elements to proteins→ the way a protein fold will affect its  function  1. Primary → this is the strand of amino acid that emerges from the ribosome after  transcription   2. Secondary→ alpha helix and beta sheets, come together by way of Hydrogen bonds    3. Tertiary→ alpha helix and beta sheets come together and fold on themselves, by more  hydrogen bonds  4. Quaternary→ at least 2 chains combine typically though disulfide bridges   Collagen is a very strong protein that is composed of alpha helixes        


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