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BIO 111, Week 2 Notes

by: Calla Fantin

BIO 111, Week 2 Notes Bio 111

Calla Fantin


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About this Document

These are the notes from the first class. The notes begin to cover how to think scientifically.
Organismal Biology
Class Notes
scientific method
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Calla Fantin on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 111 at University of Michigan - Flint taught by Yoder in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at University of Michigan - Flint.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
BIO111 Charles Darwin, Evolution and Natural Selection 9/12/16 I. Scientific method A. Four main things: 1. Introduction a. Problem to be solved / question to be answered b. Background information 2. Materials and Methods a. Report how the observations are made b. How experiments are conducted c. Must be repeatable - Eliminates bias - Keeps science and scientist honest 3. Results a. Record observations - Seen, heard, touched, tasted or smelled b. Done as objectively as possible c. Presented as tables or graphs 4. Conclusions / Scientific opinion / Discussion a. State what the observations and/or experiments mean - Scientific opinion – must be supported with evidence from your results II. What science produces? A. Science is a way of thinking, a way of knowing, or a process 1. Technology / Inventions 2. Explanations 3. Facts III.Components of scientific explanations A. Facts – observation of nature B. Hypothesis – testable statement that accounts for a fact or a set of facts C. Theories – well tested and well supported hypothesis or a set of hypotheses 1. Theories are made by: Support facts, that help generate a hypothesis which then can explain facts and even predict new unverified facts IV. Two Main Approaches to Science A. Science 1. Power – can be expanded outside the traditional sciences a. Politics, economics, sociology 2. Limitations – limited to investigating physical or objective reality (see, fell, taste, hear, smell) a. Limitations that are beyond science – love, beauty, literature, religion, God BIO111 Charles Darwin, Evolution and Natural Selection 9/12/16 B. Recorded observations are called data (data is always plural…use are!) 1. Quantitative or Quantitative data a. Quantitative – quantity or numerical measurements - EX) How long an animal did something, how many times an animal did something - EX) How many times does a certain code of DNA show up b. Qualitative – written description - EX) Watching and recording observations on animal behavior - EX) When the whole human genome was recorded C. Two approaches to science 1. Discovery-based science a. Consists of observations and measurements that describe nature - EX) DNA sequencing, development, anatomy, behavior b. Produce conclusions based on inductive reasoning - Inductive reasoning – produces general conclusions based on a large number of specific observations -Many specific observations that produce a general conclusion -EX) Many organisms have been studied. All the organisms that have been studied were found to have cells (many observations). >>> All organisms are made of cells (general conclusion) 2. Hypothesis-based science a. Consists of generating hypotheses or predictions that can be verified (or not) by observations or tested by experiments b. Produce conclusions based on deductive reasoning - Deductive reasoning – produces specific conclusions from (a) generalization(s) -Generalization(s) >>>> Specific result/conclusion -Uses “if…then” logic 3. Scientific hypotheses a. Science cannot prove anything to be true - There can be other reasons we are not considering b. Hypotheses MUST be (1) testable and (2) falsifiable (if it cannot be proven true) c. Inquiry figure 1.25 on pp. 20


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