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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bennett Notetaker on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 129LEC at University at Buffalo taught by Almon, R R in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Bio 129 Chapter 3 & 4 09/12/2016 ▯ Life must be dynamic Turnover Synthesis- process of making big molecules Degradation- process of breaking down big molecules This is a constant process for big molecules ▯ Selectivity Specialized members of the community There are outlaw cells which are cancer There are invaders (what makes you sick) The first cell has the ability of being anything Then once differentiation begins they lose the ability to be whatever they want Genome contains what a cell will be (they have proteins that are specific to a particular part of the body) All cells do NOT have the same capability Each group of cells have special barriers or capillaries to exchange with the blood, this allows them to create a special environment for that specific group of cells Liver or lungs pick up toxic substances and kick them out ▯ Different Cell Types A common process is a process that all cells are capable of doing Qualitative differences are unique process that not all cells can do Quantitative differences is where some cells do more or less of some processes Nerve cells resolves the message received ▯ Energy Energy is the production of high potential energy molecules like ATP All cells need to do this Cells differ in how they use their energy If there is no oxygen they use sugar (small amount of energy/ATP) If they have oxygen they use fat and pyruvate (large amount of energy) Sugar is the MOST important source of energy ▯ Cell Reproduction (Stem Cells) Skin and lining of digestive system also known as replacement Liver and muscle (damage) Immune system (replacement and attack)- come from bone marrow o If you’re exposed to something like a vaccination then when the cells find what they’re looking for they start dividing o Stop dividing when there’s no exposure o These are called memory cells These stem cells are leftover but are capable of becoming almost anything People are given drugs that interfere with cellular reproduction ▯ Cell Division (proliferation) Complex process involving proteins with many reactions This signals for stimulation and against inhibition Mutations are mistakes that escape--- leads to cancer When copying DNA they check for mistakes and repair or apoptosis them Lastly they separate into two different cells ▯ Protein Synthesis and Degradation Both of these processes are carried out by proteins Synthesis depends on mRNA (protein will copy this sequence) Degradation depends on proteins Both processes are highly controlled and selective ▯ The Cell Membrane Charge barrier- uncharged areas don’t like water Molecular ports or channels- these are proteins floating around (determine what can enter the cell) Information ports or receptors- form of hormones or neurotransmitters (determines what a cell can respond to) These often work together ▯ Relationships Between Cells Communication (language of messages) Coordinates functions involving many cells Signals and receptors: a cell can’t respond to a signal that it can’t see ▯ Signals Chemical messages made by one cell that gives directions to another cell or cells Two types o Insulin (charged, soluble in water) o Glucocoticoids (not soluble in water so they go through the liver) Frequency and intensity modulated signals Every hormone has a different role within the community that cells listen to ▯ Receptors A cell can only respond to the “voices” that it can hear Job is to mediate things o Open channels through the membrane o Alter gene expression (why sex change operations work) o Signals often cascade and feedback Respond to signal Adjust and remember Tolerance Dependence ▯ Other Forms of Life in the Community Viruses Bacteria Fungi Parasites ▯ Chapter 4: Priorities: An Organization Chart of the Body ▯ Organization Cells Tissues Organs Organ systems The body ▯ Specialized Functions Molecules come in through mouth goes down to stomach and digestion occurs Liver takes what it wants out of the blood (mainly to store sugar) Solid waste is removed Respiratory system: (gas exchange) oxygen enters and carbon dioxide exits Excretory system: nitrogen and other soluble waste goes outs, water, ion, and blood pressure balance Immune system: protects body from invaders Circulatory system: delivering things around the body Storage: liver, muscle, fat, and bone Reproductive system: a priority of the species Nervous system: controls the endocrine system and expresses its priority ▯ Priorities One individual (function) is more important than another Discrimination (brain picks what’s most important) Priorities are necessary because resources are limited and circumstances change Pumping of heart maintains blood that goes to the blood ▯ Change Requires Adjustment Gravity- huge problem for humans on Earth because body has to push blood against gravity to the head Food and water Temperature Danger- walking across street and see car coming at you, the visualization of seeing this will change where the blood goes o See tiger and you hope he doesn’t see you changes the blood flow in your body ▯ Sensitivity to Blood Flow Brain: acutely sensitive Heart: also acutely sensitive Kidney Skin Liver and digestive system ▯ Barriers of the Body The interfaces with the outside world Exchange of atoms, molecules and heat Lungs (interphase between inside and outside world), skin, digestive system Constant replacement Damage repair Immune protection ▯ The Lungs: Gas Exchange A passive bag with a large blood supply When skeletal muscles expand the chest, air is sucked into the lungs ▯ ▯ ▯
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