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Bio 129

by: Bennett Notetaker

Bio 129 BIO 129LEC

Bennett Notetaker

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This weeks notes. You will be tested on this material for the first exam and the final. It follows his power points which are posted on ub learns but I have added stuff that he only mentioned in cl...
Perspectives In Human Bio
Almon, R R
Class Notes
digestive, kidneys, priorities
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bennett Notetaker on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 129LEC at University at Buffalo taught by Almon, R R in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
Bio 129 Chapter 3 & 4 09/12/2016 ▯ Life must be dynamic  Turnover  Synthesis- process of making big molecules  Degradation- process of breaking down big molecules  This is a constant process for big molecules ▯ Selectivity  Specialized members of the community  There are outlaw cells which are cancer  There are invaders (what makes you sick)  The first cell has the ability of being anything  Then once differentiation begins they lose the ability to be whatever they want  Genome contains what a cell will be (they have proteins that are specific to a particular part of the body)  All cells do NOT have the same capability  Each group of cells have special barriers or capillaries to exchange with the blood, this allows them to create a special environment for that specific group of cells  Liver or lungs pick up toxic substances and kick them out ▯ Different Cell Types  A common process is a process that all cells are capable of doing  Qualitative differences are unique process that not all cells can do  Quantitative differences is where some cells do more or less of some processes  Nerve cells resolves the message received ▯ Energy  Energy is the production of high potential energy molecules like ATP  All cells need to do this  Cells differ in how they use their energy  If there is no oxygen they use sugar (small amount of energy/ATP)  If they have oxygen they use fat and pyruvate (large amount of energy)  Sugar is the MOST important source of energy ▯ Cell Reproduction (Stem Cells)  Skin and lining of digestive system also known as replacement  Liver and muscle (damage)  Immune system (replacement and attack)- come from bone marrow o If you’re exposed to something like a vaccination then when the cells find what they’re looking for they start dividing o Stop dividing when there’s no exposure o These are called memory cells  These stem cells are leftover but are capable of becoming almost anything  People are given drugs that interfere with cellular reproduction ▯ Cell Division (proliferation)  Complex process involving proteins with many reactions  This signals for stimulation and against inhibition  Mutations are mistakes that escape--- leads to cancer  When copying DNA they check for mistakes and repair or apoptosis them  Lastly they separate into two different cells ▯ Protein Synthesis and Degradation  Both of these processes are carried out by proteins  Synthesis depends on mRNA (protein will copy this sequence)  Degradation depends on proteins  Both processes are highly controlled and selective ▯ The Cell Membrane  Charge barrier- uncharged areas don’t like water  Molecular ports or channels- these are proteins floating around (determine what can enter the cell)  Information ports or receptors- form of hormones or neurotransmitters (determines what a cell can respond to)  These often work together ▯ Relationships Between Cells  Communication (language of messages)  Coordinates functions involving many cells  Signals and receptors: a cell can’t respond to a signal that it can’t see ▯ Signals  Chemical messages made by one cell that gives directions to another cell or cells  Two types o Insulin (charged, soluble in water) o Glucocoticoids (not soluble in water so they go through the liver)  Frequency and intensity modulated signals  Every hormone has a different role within the community that cells listen to ▯ Receptors  A cell can only respond to the “voices” that it can hear  Job is to mediate things o Open channels through the membrane o Alter gene expression (why sex change operations work) o Signals often cascade and feedback  Respond to signal  Adjust and remember  Tolerance  Dependence ▯ Other Forms of Life in the Community  Viruses  Bacteria  Fungi  Parasites ▯ Chapter 4: Priorities: An Organization Chart of the Body ▯ Organization  Cells  Tissues  Organs  Organ systems  The body ▯ Specialized Functions  Molecules come in through mouth goes down to stomach and digestion occurs  Liver takes what it wants out of the blood (mainly to store sugar)  Solid waste is removed  Respiratory system: (gas exchange) oxygen enters and carbon dioxide exits  Excretory system: nitrogen and other soluble waste goes outs, water, ion, and blood pressure balance  Immune system: protects body from invaders  Circulatory system: delivering things around the body  Storage: liver, muscle, fat, and bone  Reproductive system: a priority of the species  Nervous system: controls the endocrine system and expresses its priority ▯ Priorities  One individual (function) is more important than another  Discrimination (brain picks what’s most important)  Priorities are necessary because resources are limited and circumstances change  Pumping of heart maintains blood that goes to the blood ▯ Change Requires Adjustment  Gravity- huge problem for humans on Earth because body has to push blood against gravity to the head  Food and water  Temperature  Danger- walking across street and see car coming at you, the visualization of seeing this will change where the blood goes o See tiger and you hope he doesn’t see you changes the blood flow in your body ▯ Sensitivity to Blood Flow  Brain: acutely sensitive  Heart: also acutely sensitive  Kidney  Skin  Liver and digestive system ▯ Barriers of the Body  The interfaces with the outside world  Exchange of atoms, molecules and heat  Lungs (interphase between inside and outside world), skin, digestive system  Constant replacement  Damage repair  Immune protection ▯ The Lungs: Gas Exchange  A passive bag with a large blood supply  When skeletal muscles expand the chest, air is sucked into the lungs ▯ ▯ ▯


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