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Notes from the 17th

by: Meghan Shah

Notes from the 17th HORT 3440

Meghan Shah
GPA 3.78

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Notes from that date
Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants
James Affecter
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meghan Shah on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HORT 3440 at University of Georgia taught by James Affecter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants in Biology/Anthropology at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
Notes from Aug. 17 th Key: Vocab Word Family/Genus/Species Name Compound/Component Part(s) Used  Most herbs and spices (culinary) originate from 3 main geographic regions ○ Europe and the Mediterranean region  ○ “Old World” tropics (India and the “Far East” particularly) ○ “New World” tropics (South America and the Caribbean)  In antiquity (1000s of years BCE [BC]), spices were useful many different ways: ○ Flavoring foods ○ Medicines ○ Perfume ○ Ceremonies and rituals ○ Preserving foods (this was a huge issue before refrigeration; it was a matter of  life & death) ○ Spices were associated with wealth  Many herbs and spices are potent inhibitors of bacterial growth ○ Extracts from 30 herbs and spices were tested against several bacterial cultures ○ All of the inhibited or killed at least ¼ (25%) of the bacterial species  ○ The 4 most potent killed every species tested – garlic, onion, allspice, and  oregano.  The active ingredients in Listerine are products of plants  Ancient Egyptians mummies have been examined; a lot of plants are used in the  process of mummification. ○ Some of the plants were local, others would’ve had to been traded for. ○ Mummy mix:  ▪ Local:  Cumin  Anise  Marjoram ▪ Imported:  Cinnamon  Myrrh  Good for mouth sores  Frankincense  ○ There was an expedition funded by the Ancient Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut in  1500 BCE to the land of Punt to get stuff ○ Spice have been highly valuable for a very long time  Eber’s Papyrus is an old Egyptian scroll that’s 65 feet long ○ It contains around 700 prescriptions that Ancient Egyptians used ○ It’s from around 1500 BCE  Spice trade routes have been around for over 5000 years.  Many wars have been  fought over spices and trade routes ○ From Gaul in Rome people went to Malabar (India) to get ginger and pepper  Patterns of conquest in the Middle East resulted from on­again off­again flow of  spices from the Far East to Europe ○ During the Dark Ages (478 – 1096 CE [AD]), the Arabs were in control of the  spice trade and Europeans were essentially cut off from the supply ▪ Called the “Muslim Curtain” ▪ Arabs continued the spice trade for their own use.  The Prophet Mohammed (570 – 632) was a spice trader as a young man ▪ The Dark Ages ended with the first Crusade in Europe (1096)  Europeans were reintroduced to the luxuries of the Middle East  This stimulated the desire to break the Arab trade monopoly. ­ Over land, routes to India, China, and South East Asia were  established and delivered spices to Venice and Genoa. ← These city states became very wealthy, which helped fund  artistic and cultural achievements of the Renaissance ○ In the 1400s, expansions of the Turkish empire cut off Europe from control of the  over land routes ▪ This led to the search for alternative sea routes to the Far East. ▪ In 1480, Vasco de Gama reached India by sailing around the South African  Cape of Good Hope ▪ By 1560, direct sea routes and reopened land routes had been established  (and reestablished) the flow of spices to Europe. ○ This led to the Age of Exploration ▪ The Portuguese were the first to dominate the Asian trade ▪ The Dutch displaced the Portuguese and had a virtual monopoly for the next  200 years.  The Dutch were pushed out in 1796 when the British invaded ○ The Age of Exploration was followed by the Colonialism period. ▪ Many spices were transported around the world for cultivation  Botanical gardens, such as the Jardín Botánico in Rio de Janeiro, served  as centers for introduction. Sage is in the mint family.


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