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BMS 1004

by: Nazifa Sheikh
Nazifa Sheikh

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About this Document

These are the class notes in addition to my chapter 1 outline of the textbook!
Introduction to Cell and Molecular Biology
Class Notes
cellular biology, life




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nazifa Sheikh on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 1004 at Polytechnic Institute of New York University taught by Zheng in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cell and Molecular Biology in Biology at Polytechnic Institute of New York University.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
1.1 THE PROPERTIES OF LIFE  biology: study of life  properties of life o growth increase in size and/or cell volume  development maturation of cells into distinct stages o homeostasis internal balance; a range of optimal  same-state o reproduction procreate  “finite” life span, passing of genetic information o energy and metabolism making energy to sustain life, break down of food o response to stimuli short lived change in behavior  bacteria are places in a sucrose solution for a long period of time  they use their sucrose enzymes to break down and digest the sucrose  abruptly placed in a fructose solution  now use their fructose enzymes to digest the solution  no DNA is changed, what’s being used from the DNA changes o adaptation permanent change in DNA of that organism o evolution passing on adaptation skills/change in DNA onto offspring  atoms  molecules  cells  tissues  organs  organ systems  organisms  population  community  ecosystem  biosphere o ex of tissues: alveoli, cartilage  pseudolife forms o viruses - no reproduction o prions: misfolded proteins that cause a cascading effect of other proteins around them to misfold  1.2 THE UNITY AND DIVERSITY OF LIFE  life on earth is united by evolutionary past o modern organisms have evolved from pre-existing organisms  diverse environments = diverse lifeforms  over time populations may change  structures with a certain function may change  serves a new function o bat’s wings are for flying and dolphin’s flippers are for swimming – both came from a structure used for walking in a pre-existing ancestor Vertical Descent with Mutation  evolution in a vertical manner: progression of changes in a series of ancestors (lineage) o this evolution is vertical evolution  new species evolve from pre-existing ones by mutations  mutation: random changes in the genetic material o mutations may increase chances of survival  organisms with the mutation would outlive the others without it Horizontal Gene Transfer  can occur between different species  may be subjected to natural selection  ex: bugs becoming resistant to pesticides o genes that correlate to resistance are sometimes transferred between different bacterial species The Classification of Living Organisms Allows Biologists to Appreciate the Unity and Diversity of Life  taxonomy: categorizing species  prokaryotic cells have a basic structure  eukaryotic cells have nuclei  traditional subdivisions of eukaryotes o protists (unicellular organisms) o animals o plants o fungi later rejected  binomial nomenclature: genus, species 1.3 BIOLOGY AS A SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINE  biological science involves the observation, identification, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanation of natural phenomena  biologists study life at different levels, ranging from ecosystems to molecular components in cells  hypothesis: proposal to explain natural phenomena  biological theory: broad explanation based on vast amounts of data and makes many valid predictions


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