CHapter 6 Teacher Notes Bio
CHapter 6 Teacher Notes Bio BSC 2010
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marla Notetaker on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2010 at University of South Florida taught by Dr. Eric M. Sikorski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Biology I Cellular Processes in Biology at University of South Florida.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Chapter 6 – A Tour of the Cell The Fundamental Units of Life The Cell Theory: o All organisms composed of cells o Cells are the smallest unit of life o All cells come from other cells Concept 6.1 How do we study cells – take it apart o Cell Fractionation: Used to be biochemically back in the day: look at the chemical components of the cell o Centrifuges: spin around the solution and when centrifuged the heavier components of the cells will fall at the bottom of the tube by the centrifugal force, leaving a pellet at the bottom (the heavier components)…. If we are looking for smaller component it will be in the supernate which is what its left on top o Homogenization: breaking up cells into smaller pieces Mechanical – like a liquation… shop it up Mild detergents – detergents will solubilize lipids of the cell membrane *If used STRONG detergents can cause proteins to denature* Sonication – putting soundwaves with an instrument to use the vibration to break them. Enzymes – they by themselves can break down specific components *Use enzymes to break CELL WALLS and then use another* Concept 6.2 I. Comparing Prokaryotes and Eukaryotic Cells Prokaryotes: bacteria and archaea o NOT a nucleus BUT a NUCEOID which has the DNA which is ANCHORED to the cell membrane o Some bacteria have a Cell Wall o There are NO membrane bound organelles… meaning that everything happens in the cytoplasm with no aid f smaller organelles (like ER) Eukaryotes: animal, plant, fungi o DOES have membrane bound Organelles… they designate an specific task to smaller organelles… which is why they are larger o As one increases the size of the cell the VOLUME increases MORE than the surface area Common Traits of both types of cells: o Cell Membranes: Determines what comes in and out of cell o DNA o Cytoplasm o Ribosomes Diffusion: very fast in SHORT distance – the LARGER cells have more PROBLEM *Refer to picture 6.7 p.98 In Bio Book USF version* II. A Panoramic View of the Cell Eukaryotic Cell *Refer to page 100 and 101 in Bio USF* Concept 6.3 I. Nucleus Protects DNA Consists of: o Nuclear envelope nd o The 2 bilayer of the nucleus continues to the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) o Nuclear Pores: regulates the large pieces that go in/out of the nucleus o Nuclear lamina: rigidity, proteins line the inside of the nucleus to keep it from membrane. Mitochondria o Has its own DNA so it can replicate itself o It STILL needs DNA from the nucleus Genome: all the DNA of an organism – divided into smaller pieces (chromosomes) Chromatin: DNA + all associated proteins (we are NOT JUST talking abt DNA) Nucleolus: ribosome biogenesis – create ribosomes Genome: ALL Chromosomes Gene: specific sequence of DNA that codes for RNA – a piece of DNA II. Ribosomes Made of Proteins + RNA Function: to create proteins Found in cytoplasm and Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Concept 6.4 I. ER Edomem (Endomembrane system) o Nuclear envelope o Endoplasmic Reticulum o Golgi Apparatus o Lysosomes o Vacuoles Plasma Membrane a. Smooth ER Lipid Synthesis Some Carbohydrates Metabolism Detoxification (get rid of dangerous materials which got inside the cells) Store Calcium ions b. Rough ER Synthesis of secreted or membrane bound proteins Package products into vesicles for transport – typically goes to Golgi Apparatus, ifnot it goes to the cell membrane, depends on the function of the product