BIO 120 CHP. 3 & 4 Lecture Notes
BIO 120 CHP. 3 & 4 Lecture Notes Biology 120
Popular in General Biology
Popular in Biology
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaity Notetaker on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 120 at Grand Valley State University taught by Jennifer J Jenkins in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Grand Valley State University.
Reviews for BIO 120 CHP. 3 & 4 Lecture Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/12/16
BIO 120 CHP . 3 WATER AND LIFE I. STRUCTURE 3 dimensional shape of water? V-shape Because of valence shell orbitals Composed of covalent bonds Polar molecule II. 4 Emergent Properties a. Cohesion – Stick together b. Adhesion – Stick to other things Why? Polar molecule forms hydrogen bonds Why is this important? Water gets to very hard to reach places Ex: Trees Cohesion has high surface tension – good microhabitat c. Moderation of temp Water resists changes in temperature Temperature: the measure of heat intensity due to average kinetic energy of molecules in body of water Has specific heat relative to other substances Specific Heat: amount of energy required (lost or absorbed) to change the temp 1 degree Celsius Water = 4.18 joules Such a high specific heat because water has to use a lot of energy to break bonds (ex: freezing or boiling water) Relevance of waters with specific heat to life on earth? Large bodies of water moderate coastal climates in summer and winter. Keeps earth’s temperature moderate (land and water) Evaporative Cooling: (sweating) water has high heat of vaporization, moving from liquid to gas state hydrogen bonds have to break d. Water expands when it freezes (It floats) Why? Hydrogen bonds between water molecules become stable. Importance? Difficult/Almost impossible to have living organisms Water is an excellent solvent (dissolving agent). Many substances have an affinity for water (Hydrophilic) Aqueous Solution: when water is the solvent III. Water Dissociates – falls apart (at low rates) HYDRONIUM (H3O+) and HYDROXIDE (OH-) <> 2H2O Acids raise proton concentration (ex: hydrochloric acid) Bases lower proton concentration in some way PH SCALE FORMULA: pH= -log(H+) Pure water 1x10^-7, Coffee 1x10^-5 (100x more protons than pure water) Buffers: Help us maintain stable pH range CHP 4. CARBON & MOLECULAR ACTIVITY I. Structure: organisms are made up of chemical bases, mostly carbon (6 protons, 6 neutrons, 6 electrons) O = C = O II. Contribution to diversity a. Variations in the skeleton Length, branching, double bonds, formation of rings (chains of hydrocarbons) b. Isomers: Allow carbon molecules to be even more diverse Structural – two molecules with the same molecular formula but differ in bond order Cis – trans Isomers – Same covalent relationship but differ in spatial relationship Digression – saturated, unsaturated, trans Trans is an unsaturated fat but takes on a diff shape than naturally occurring unsaturated fats Enantiomers – mirror images, cannot be super imposed on each other (same bond order) Asymmetric Carbon – 4 different bonds c. Functional Groups: molecular groups that attach to the carbon backbone making molecules very diverse
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'