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BIO 120 CHP. 3 & 4 Lecture Notes

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BIO 120 CHP. 3 & 4 Lecture Notes Biology 120

Marketplace > Grand Valley State University > Biology > Biology 120 > BIO 120 CHP 3 4 Lecture Notes
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About this Document

This covers the lecture notes given on chapter 3 (Water & Life) and chapter 4 (Carbon & Molecular Diversity)
General Biology
Jennifer J Jenkins
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaity Notetaker on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 120 at Grand Valley State University taught by Jennifer J Jenkins in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Grand Valley State University.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
BIO 120 CHP . 3 WATER AND LIFE I. STRUCTURE  3 dimensional shape of water? V-shape  Because of valence shell orbitals  Composed of covalent bonds  Polar molecule II. 4 Emergent Properties a. Cohesion – Stick together b. Adhesion – Stick to other things  Why? Polar molecule forms hydrogen bonds  Why is this important? Water gets to very hard to reach places  Ex: Trees  Cohesion has high surface tension – good microhabitat c. Moderation of temp  Water resists changes in temperature  Temperature: the measure of heat intensity due to average kinetic energy of molecules in body of water  Has specific heat relative to other substances  Specific Heat: amount of energy required (lost or absorbed) to change the temp 1 degree Celsius  Water = 4.18 joules  Such a high specific heat because water has to use a lot of energy to break bonds (ex: freezing or boiling water)  Relevance of waters with specific heat to life on earth? Large bodies of water moderate coastal climates in summer and winter. Keeps earth’s temperature moderate (land and water)  Evaporative Cooling: (sweating) water has high heat of vaporization, moving from liquid to gas state hydrogen bonds have to break d. Water expands when it freezes (It floats)  Why? Hydrogen bonds between water molecules become stable.  Importance? Difficult/Almost impossible to have living organisms  Water is an excellent solvent (dissolving agent). Many substances have an affinity for water (Hydrophilic)  Aqueous Solution: when water is the solvent III. Water Dissociates – falls apart (at low rates)  HYDRONIUM (H3O+) and HYDROXIDE (OH-) <> 2H2O  Acids raise proton concentration (ex: hydrochloric acid)  Bases lower proton concentration in some way  PH SCALE FORMULA: pH= -log(H+)  Pure water 1x10^-7, Coffee 1x10^-5 (100x more protons than pure water)  Buffers: Help us maintain stable pH range CHP 4. CARBON & MOLECULAR ACTIVITY I. Structure: organisms are made up of chemical bases, mostly carbon (6 protons, 6 neutrons, 6 electrons)  O = C = O II. Contribution to diversity a. Variations in the skeleton  Length, branching, double bonds, formation of rings (chains of hydrocarbons) b. Isomers: Allow carbon molecules to be even more diverse  Structural – two molecules with the same molecular formula but differ in bond order  Cis – trans Isomers – Same covalent relationship but differ in spatial relationship  Digression – saturated, unsaturated, trans  Trans is an unsaturated fat but takes on a diff shape than naturally occurring unsaturated fats  Enantiomers – mirror images, cannot be super imposed on each other (same bond order)  Asymmetric Carbon – 4 different bonds c. Functional Groups: molecular groups that attach to the carbon backbone making molecules very diverse


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