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Physiology Week 3

by: Katharyn Taylor

Physiology Week 3 Bio 230

Katharyn Taylor

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About this Document

These are my notes from the third week of classes.
Human Physiology
Mr. Mark Alston
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katharyn Taylor on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 230 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Mr. Mark Alston in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
Tuesday, August 30, 2016 Physiology - Post translational Modification - change the activity of the protein. Some cases, turns the protein on, while in others it turns it off • Allosteric modification: two binding sites, regulatory (controls activity) and functional (actual does the job the protein is intended to do). Two ligands: modulator molecule binds to regulatory to alter shape of binding site to activate (increase affinity) or inhibit (decrease affinity) of the controlling protein • Covalent modulation: requires chemical reaction. another word for phosphorylation and dephosphorylating to deactivate (two separate reactions with two different enzymes involved) - amount of energy involved is the most notable difference between the two. covalent requires much more energy to make and break bonds as opposed to allosteric being controlled by concentration of reactants and products • Splitting: polypeptide is cut into pieces to activate or deactivate those pieces. NOT the same as splicing, which happens to mRNA. Splitting is not reversible, meaning if you need the original protein again, it has to be made over again • Glycosalation & Methylation are modification as well as labeling mechanisms to help the proteins get to the right place in the cytoplasm • Kinds of control: Translation, splicing, transcription, post translational, degradation - Denaturing acts on many proteins at once, so it isn't considered a control mechanism - Plasma Membrane (also called cytoplasmic membrane, is a phospholipid bilayer) - Cytoplasm (two components) • Cytosol - intracellular fluid. Extracellular: interstitial fluid is an example • Organelles (can be membranous or non membranous) - Glycocalyx - cell exterior sugar coating. Important for attachment and is a component in cells recognizing each other (antigens) - Peripheral proteins are on the inside edge of the membrane 1 Tuesday, August 30, 2016 - Types of junctions: desmosomes (structural), tight junction (joint membranes), gap junction (bridge between cells) - Types of cells by tissue formation • Epithelial cells (lining or covering) • Bone cells (osteocytes) • Cartilage cells (chondrocytes) • Nerve cells • Muscle cells (myocytes) • Secretory cells (form glands) • Adipose cells (store fat) Blood cells (several types) • - transcellular (moving through the cell) and paracellular (moving between cells) 2


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