BMS 300 - DNA and Proteins
BMS 300 - DNA and Proteins BMS 300
Popular in Principles of Human Physiology
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Hurlbut on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 300 at Colorado State University taught by John P Walrond in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Principles of Human Physiology in Biomedical Sciences at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
• DNA components —deoxyribose (5 carbon sugar), polymerized by phosphodiester bonds —nitrogenous base A. adenine (purine) B. guanine (purine) C. thymine (pyrimidine) D. cytosine (pyrimidine) —triphosphate group (always attached to #5 carbon) • RNA has ribose sugar and uracil instead of thymine (1 less methyl group in uracil) • DNA replication is semiconservative - each old strand serves as template for new strand leading strand (5’ to 3’) does continuous replication while lagging strand (3’ to 5’) replicates in • pieces called Okazaki fragments • main enzymes involved —helicase: breaks hydrogen bonds of nitrogenous bases and unwinds strands —DNA polymerase: base pairing, phosphodiester bond formation, synthesizes 5’ to 3’ • types of RNA —rRNA: major component of ribosomes —tRNA: transfers amino acids to ribosome —mRNA: contains base sequence to deﬁne amino acid sequence of proteins • central dogma - transcription —start site or promoter is a sequence of bases in DNA (TATA box)—>provides binding site for DNA binding proteins called transcription factors —transcription factors provide binding site for RNA polymerase—>separation of strands and generation of complementary mRNA transcript via 3-base sequences called codons —mRNA transcript edited by small nuclear ribonuclear proteins (SNRPs)—>introns spliced out, exons connected together • central dogma - translation —small ribosomal subunit binds to AUG start codon and then recruits large ribosomal subunit with tRNA to catalyze peptide bond —AUG start codon (methionine) sets reading frame so that each subsequent codon can encode for an amino acid —3-base tRNA anticodon is complementary to mRNA codon—>moves along mRNA transcript until it reaches a stop codon —mRNA transcript translated into protein • if an amino acid chain is hydrophobic, the new protein is signaled to be sent to the ER —signal recognition particles recognize hydrophobic amino acid chains called signal peptides • the translocon is a protein that provides a pathway across the bilayer of the ER —amino acid chain binds to translocon and is threaded into lumen of ER
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