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Chem 341 - Orbitals, geometry, functional groups, naming

by: Caroline Hurlbut

Chem 341 - Orbitals, geometry, functional groups, naming Chem 341

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Chemistry > Chem 341 > Chem 341 Orbitals geometry functional groups naming
Caroline Hurlbut
GPA 3.7

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Hybrid orbitals, molecule geometry, important functional groups, process for naming alkanes.
Modern Organic Chemistry I
Anna Elizabeth Allen
Class Notes
Organic Chemistry
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Hurlbut on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 341 at Colorado State University taught by Anna Elizabeth Allen in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Modern Organic Chemistry I in Chemistry at Colorado State University.

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Date Created: 09/12/16
• a Lewis acid accepts electrons (electrophile) and a Lewis base donates electrons (nucleophile) reactivity of organic molecules determined by functional groups • —part of a molecule with characteristic physical/chemical properties that makes it reactive • hydrocarbon functional groups —alkanes: C—C bonds —alkenes: C=C bonds —alkynes: C ≡ C bonds —aromatic: benzene ring • important functional groups —alkyl halide: C—(F, Cl, Br, I) —alcohol: C—OH —ether: C—O—C —thiol: C—SH —sulfide: C—S —aldehyde: O=C—H —ketone: C=O —carboxylic acid: O=C—OH —ester: O=C—O —acid chloride: O=C—Cl —amide: O=C—NH2 —anhydride: O=C—O—C=O classification of C atoms • —primary (1˚): bonded to 1 carbon —secondary (2˚): bonded to 2 carbons —tertiary (3˚): bonded to 3 carbons —quaternary (4˚): bonded to 4 carbons • classification of H atoms —primary (1˚): bonded to 1˚ carbon —secondary (2˚): bonded to 2˚ carbon —tertiary (3˚): bonded to 3˚ carbon • classification of functional groups —alcohols: up to 3˚ —alkyl hydrides: up to 3˚ —amines (classified same way as carbons): up to 4˚ ex. CH3CH3 - tetrahedral bonding orbital antibonding orbital antibonding orbital end-on overlap of s and p orbitals make 4 hybridized sp3 orbitals ex. BH3 - trigonal planar 3 hybridized sp2 orbitals and 1 unhybridized p orbital left at 90˚ angle on B ex. BeH2 - linear makes 2 sp orbitals and 2 unhybridized p orbitals left at 90˚ angles from each other on Be • hybridization rules —# atomic orbitals in = # hybridized orbitals out —all hybridized orbitals are identical and equally spaced around atom —not all atomic orbitals have to hybridize • ex. hybridization and geometry of H2O - O has 2 H atoms and 2 lone pairs—>4 “things” on O atom—>O is sp3 hybridized—>O is tetrahedral • name of organic molecules has 3 parts —parent name: indicates # of carbons in longest continuous chain —suffix: indicates what functional group is present —prefix: indicates identity, location, and # of substituents (branching off groups) attached to parent carbon chain • nomenclature of alkanes —methane: CH4 —ethane: C2H6 —propane: C3H8 —butane: C4H10 —pentane: C5H12 —hexane: C6H14 —heptane: C7H16 —octane: C8H18 —nonane: C9H20 —decane: C10H22 • naming carbon and halogen substituents —alkyl groups: hydrocarbon substituents on parent carbon chain —change -ane ending and replace it with -yl (ex. 1 carbon branching off parent chain —>methyl) —common 3, 4, and 5 carbon alkyl groups A. n-propyl (n = normal or 3 carbons in a row) or isopropyl (fish tail) B. n-butyl (4 carbons in a row) or t-butyl (chicken foot) C. neopentyl (chicken foot with additional carbon on parent chain —halogen substituents are named by changing -ine ending to -o (ex. chlorine—>chloro) naming an alkane • —find parent carbon chain and add proper suffix A. if there are multiple chains of equal length, pick the one with more substituents —number atoms in carbon chain to give the first substituent the lowest number A. start numbering the carbons from the left or the right depending on which carbon the first substituent branches off of starting from left, you reach the alcohol substituent on carbon 2 starting from right, you reach the alcohol substituent on carbon 3 2 < 3, so start numbering carbons from the left —name and number substituents A. use prefixes to indicate how many (di, tri, tetra, etc.) alphabetize names of substituents, ignoring all prefixes except iso (alphabet B. = tiebreaker) —for alkanes in a ring: A. add cyclo- to parent ring B. number carbons around ring to get lowest substituent numbers parent chain has 6 carbons—>hexane 1 ethyl group (2 carbons) on #3 carbon, 1 methyl group (1 carbon) on #3 carbon form: location - prefix, group


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