Chemistry 101 Chapter 3 Compounds and molecules
Chemistry 101 Chapter 3 Compounds and molecules Chem 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle Herman on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 101 at Ball State University taught by Khisamutdinov in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see General, Organic, and Biochemistry for the Health Sciences in Chemistry at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Compounds and Molecules: Matter o Pure substances Element and compound Element Monatomic Diatomic Compound Ionic Covalent A compound is composed of 2 or more different atoms in a definite whole-number proportion Ionic compounds Composed of metals and non-metals that attract each other Form lattice structure Naming o Metal then non-metal Chemical Bond Ionic bond o Connects metals and non-metals Electronegativity A measure of tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons How badly an atom wants electrons Polyatomic Ions Monoatomic cation o Formed when a metal loses one or more valence electrons Monoatomic anion o Fromed when a nonmetal gains one or more valence electrons Polyatomic ion o An ion form when a molecule, rather than a single atom, gains or loses one, two, or three electrons Formula Unit Ionic compound is identified by ration of cations and anions Forming Steps 1. Determine the charge on the cation 2. Determine the charge on the anion 3. Determine the subscripts Naming o Write the name of the cation followed by the name of the anion If cation is a transition metal, write its name followed by roman numeral in parentheses Ionic bond Connects metals and non-metals Covalent compounds (molecular compounds) Between atoms consist of shared valence electrons molecule o A set of atoms joined by covalent bonds Most substances are covalent compounds Each one consists of a pair of shared electrons Diatomic Molecules Each contains two atoms Sharing electrons Shared electrons are part of the valence shell With ionic compounds, sharing seeks to achieve a filled octet Single o One pair of shared electrons Double o 2 pairs of shared electrons Triple o 3 pairs of shared electrons o Shortest Properties of covalent compounds Properties of covelent compounds differ from ionic compounds due to the different character of their bonds Ionic compounds Covalent Compunds Metals/nonmetals Non-metals/non-metals High boiling point Low boiling point High melting point Low melting point Solutions conduct electricity Soultions do not conduct electricity Usually solids May be solids, liquids, or gasses Naming covalent molecules For the first element start with the element name For the second element, start with the -ide name Use prefixes to show how many atom of each type there are Do not use "mono-" on the first element If you have "ao" or "oo", turn it into "o" Polarity of molecules Molecular polarity o A characteristic of molecules that determines how they interact with other molecules Electronegativity o A measure of an atom's ability to draw electrons toward itself in a covalent bond Dipole Forces polar covalent o A polar covalent bond exists between 2 atoms with a significant difference in electronegativity o Bond dipole is separation of opposite charge Nonpolar covalent o Exists between 2 atoms with similar electronegativity o Bonding electroms are evenly distributed between both atoms Polar and nonpolar molecules Depends on molecular shape Polar molecule o Has a separation of charge a positive end and a negative end of the molecule o Molecules with 1+ bond dipoles and a trigonal pyramidal or bent molecular shape are polar because the bond dipoles cant cancel Nonpolar molecule o Has an even distribution of electrons throughout the molecule o Hydrocarbons Contain only C-C and C-H nods, both nonpolar bonds o Bond dipoles cancel when there are 3 (trigonal planar molecular shape), 4 identical bond dipoles (tetrahedral molecular shape) A molecule with 2+ polar covalent bonds need to look at the shape of the molecule
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