W1: Chemical Principles Lecture (8/22-8/24-8/26)
W1: Chemical Principles Lecture (8/22-8/24-8/26) sch 100 01
Seton Hill University
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Olivia Lange on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to sch 100 01 at Seton Hill University taught by Professor Flowers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Chemical Principles in Chemistry at Seton Hill University.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
1.1 Chem: The Central Science What is Chemistry? Textbook definition & Webster’s New World Dictionary ● Matter physical material that makes up the universe: it has mass and occupies space (you can see it, touch, smell, taste) ● Scientific Method the process of observation, hypothesis, and experimentation used to expand a body of knowledge ● Slide shows diagram of how chemistry relates to many fields (check Pearson). ● Analytical Chem deals with qualitative (constituents) & quantitative (amounts) analysis of substances. ● Organic Chem study of carboncontaining compounds and their derivatives. ● Inorganic Chem study of all other substances not included in organic chem. (like other elements in the periodic table), plus carbon attached to metals ● Physical C study of general principles determining the behavior of matter, and its transformation, as well as the associated energy changes. ● BioChemistry ○ study of the structures and functions of living organisms at the molecular level ○ fundamental ideas rooted in chemistry ● Property ○ a characteristic useful for identifying a substance or object (i.e. size, color, temperature, as well as chemical composition and chemical reactivity) ● Physical change ○ A change that does not affect the chemical makeup of a substance or object ● Chemical change ○ A change in the chemical makeup of a substance. Matter ● Solid ○ Substance w/ definite shape and volume. ● Liquid ○ Substance w/ definite volume but assumes the shape of its container. ● Gas ○ Substance that has neither a definite volume nor a definite shape. ● Many substances can exist in all three phases and participate in changes of state. ● Substances are classified as… ● Pure substances ○ A substance that has a uniform chemical comp. throughout. ● Mixtures ○ A blend of two or more substances, each of which retains its chemical identity. Components of a mixture can be separated without changing their identities. ● Homogeneous mixture a uniform mixture that has the same composition throughout. ● (vanilla ice cream, uniform flavor) ● Heterogeneous mixture a nonuniform mixture that has regions of different composition. ● (rocky road ice cream, various flavors per scoop) Pure substances can be classified into 2 groups… ● Element ○ A fundamental substance that cannot be broken down chemically into any simpler substance. ● Chemical compound ○ A pure substance that can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical reactions. End of notes. There are 118 identified and 91 naturally occurring elements. Chem Principles 8/26/16 Chapter 2 ● Decomposition on H2O: water can be chemically changed by passing an electric current through it. ○ The reactant (water) is written on the left. ○ The products (hydrogen and oxygen) are written on the right. ○ An arrow connects the two parts to indicate a chemical reaction. ■ The conditions necessary are written above and below the arrow. ● See graphic organizer on matter. ● Aspirin a case study ● Metals: ○ 94 of the known elements are metals ○ Occur on left side of periodic table ○ Solid @ room temp (except mercury) ○ Usually lustrous when freshly cut ○ Good conductors of heat & electricity ○ Malleable (bendable) rather than brittle ● Nonmetals: ○ 18 of the known elements ○ Right side of periodic table ○ 11 are gases ○ 6 solids ○ 1 liquid, bromine ○ Poor conductors of heat & electricity ○ Brittle when solid ● Metalloids ○ 6 of the known elements ○ Properties are intermediate between metals and nonmetals ○ Occur in a zigzag band between metals on the left and nonmetals on the right side of the periodic table ● Mercury & Mercury Poisoning ○ Only metallic element that is a liquid at room temperature. ○ Mercury has many uses in which it is not toxic, including the laxative calomel (Hg2Cl2) and dental amalgam. ○ Hot topics: vaccines, fish, mercury poisoning ○ When exposed to vapor, mercury causes adverse health effects. ● Nickel ○ Hard shiny metal ○ Hydrogen chloride is a colorless gas that dissolves in water to form hydrochloric acid ○ When nickel is added to hydrochloric acid, the nickel is eaten away, the solid turns green and a gas bubbles out. ○ Chemical reaction because: change in color, dissolving nickel, bubbles appear. ○ [Ni + 2 HCl > NiCl2 + H2] ○ [Nickel + Hydrochloric acid > Nickel II Chloride + Hydrogen] ● Physical Quantities ○ Mass, volume, temp, density, and other physical properties are called PHYSICAL QUANTITIES and are described by both a number and a UNIT: ■ Physical quantity: a physical property that can be measured. ■ Unit: a defined quantity used as a standard of measurement. ■ International System of Units = SI (metric units)
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