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Physiology Week 4

by: Katharyn Taylor

Physiology Week 4 Bio 230

Katharyn Taylor

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About this Document

These are my notes from the fourth week of class.
Human Physiology
Mr. Mark Alston
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katharyn Taylor on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 230 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Mr. Mark Alston in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
Tuesday, September 6, 2016 Physiology Week 4 Cell Structure Continued/Transport - Cytoplasm has two components: cytosol - water and compounds dissolved into it • • organelles - discreet structures. Non membranous organelles include the cytoskeleton (actin filaments) and ribosomes (free or bound to the endoplasmic reticulum). Membranous organelles include the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi body, lysosomes, peroxisomes, and vesicles - Smooth endoplasmic reticulum shuffles calcium in and out constantly. Short term, manipulated calcium storage. Muscle cells have a lot of this • This is an example of how different cells have different structures and different amounts of organelles in order to perform their specified function. - Vesiclescan be for storage within the cell, transport to the cell exterior, or can be specialized into lysosomes, which are vesicles that contain digestive enzymes, or peroxisomes, which contain antioxidants to counter free radical oxygens that would degrade our membranes and proteins. - Apoptosis is a programmed cell death. Cells get old and die, and lysosomes digest the cell from the inside out - Epithelial cells • have a basement membrane on one surface. • Apical surface of the cell is the ‘exposed’ side in the organ. So the side of the stomach exposed to stomach acid, side of skin exposed to the air, side of blood vessel exposed to blood - Size of the molecule determines paracellular transport ability - Special junctions: tight junctions and desmosomes - Glycocalyx - surrounds the cell membrane of some cells. Exterior coating - Extracellular matrix - connects tissue cells and determines that rigidity of the tissue. Like the difference between bone and cartilage 1 Tuesday, September 6, 2016 - Cellular Respiration (energy transfer from ATP) dictates most cellular function. Removal of a phosphate group results in a release of a large amount of energy. The three pathways involved are Glycolysis, Kreb’s Cycle, and Oxidative Phosphorylation. Together they are a pathway for carbohydrates, primarily glucose. • Glycolysis: glucose is a 6 carbon sugar. It is split into two three carbon molecules. The two 3C’s can be converted into 2 pyruvate. (costs 2 ATP to make, uses 2 NAD+, but produces 2 NADH and 4ATP) • Kreb’s Cycle: takes place in the mitochondria. Uses oxygen and converts ADP into ATP while producing CO2 and H2O as waste products • Oxidative Phosphorylation: electron transport chain - Aerobic Respiration - requires oxygen - Anaerobic Respiration - some parts of the body are capable of switching to this mechanism for a little while. Most of our cells cannot use it, but few can use it as a temporary patch to get more energy to the muscle temporarily. It is less efficient - Beta-Oxidation - fatty acid is converted into Acetyl CoA - Diffusion is the movement of solute from greater concentration to lesser concentration • As temperature increases, rate of diffusion increases Higher viscosity decreases diffusion rate • • Bigger particles are more slowly diffused • Higher surface area increases rate of diffusion • Higher permeability of a membrane increases rate of diffusion across it - Things that are lipid soluble readily diffuse through a cell membrane - There are several types of gates for channels through the membrane • Mechanical - pressure or disturbance unlocks. This includes stretching and bending • Ligand - something binds to the gate to change the shape and unlock it • Voltage - electrical differences unlock the gate 2 Tuesday, September 6, 2016 - Transporters have binding site and undergo a shape change to bring a solute into the cell through the membrane (think revolving door) - Facilitated diffusion is passive - First and Second active transports are active - Discussion question: how can you create a chlorine gradient using mechanisms we’ve discussed? 3


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