Ecology Exam Supplemental
Ecology Exam Supplemental Bio 369
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joseph Notetaker on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 369 at Missouri State University taught by Brain Greene in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see General Ecology in Biology at Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Ecology Exam Supplemental Subtropical Desert: O o All found within latitudinal bands from 15-35 C Climate caused by tropical Hadley Cells Evaporation rates exceed rainfall o 1/3 of terrestrial area Arid: 10-25cm annual precipitation Extremely arid: <10 cm o Only biome that is expanding o North America has four desert regions Three “hot” deserts Chihuahuan, Sonoran, Mojave o Each has distinct climate and plant life o Cacti One “cold” Great Basin o Open, dry o No cacti o Ecosystem processes of deserts Low primary productivity Lack of energy affects animal life Ectotherms dominate because of low energy needs Termites important decomposers o Diverse strategies for plants Exerphytes: desert adapted plants (cacti) Phreatophytes: lengthy root systems to access water Desert annuals: rapid life cycle completed during seasonal rains (bright beautiful flowers) o Desert Herbivores Granivores: Creatures that eat seeds Rodents Harvester ants Boreal Forest: O o 50-70 C N latitude in mostly glaciated regions o Dominated by spruce, fir, pines, and hemlock Willow, aspen, and alder in disturbed areas All species very cold tolerant o Adapted to cold conditions o Permafrost Tundra: o Low diversity of perennials herbs, grasses, sedges, lichens o Permafrost traps water in upper soil layers o Low productivity o Most production consumed by decomposers Freshwater Ecosystems: o Limnology: Study of freshwater ecosystems o Aquatic systems are strongly influenced by depth, temperature, nutrient availability and O2concentration o Freshwater systems are mainly distinguished by flow rate Lotic systems (rivers and streams)(flowing) Lentic systems (Lakes and ponds)(stagnant) Wetlands (generally moist areas o Streams and Rivers: Streams and creeks are small, fast-flowing, and reletivly cool Significant canopy cover Unproductive and dependent on Allochthonous energy output Rivers are large slow-moving, and warm Autochthonous with higher productivity than streams High nutrient loads Riparian zones of flood tolerant terrestrial vegetation border streams Riffle: part of the stream that is very shallow (most productive part of the stream) o Lakes: Basins that form by melting glaciers or oxbows in river channels Litteral zone: closest to shore, supports a wide variety of plants Limnetic zone: open water in the middle of the lake Benthic zone: the very bottom of a lake where “bottom feeders” live. o Wetlands: Categories distinguished by amount and persistence of water Basins, floodplains, lake, margins Distinguished by how much water there is and how long it stays All types have: Water at or near the surface Hydric (saturated soils) Vegetation adapted to wet conditions Marshes Shallow, permanent, all grasses Swamp Shallow, permanent, mostly trees Temporary ponds Depressions in the ground that fill and dry up seasonally Bogs Buildup of deep spongy layers of organic material (peat) in depressions o Very low primary productivity o Sphagnum moss invades and acidifies water, inhibits decomposition o Mostly at northern latitudes or in mountainous regions o Plants here supplement nitrogen by catching and digesting insects (carnivorous plants) Boundaries between terrestrial and marine environments o Salt marshes/estuaries o Mangrove swamps o Intertidal Zones Coral Reefs: o Warm o Shallow water o High biodiversity o Very productive o Sensitive to changes in ocean temperatures Impacted by global climate change
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