US History Chapter 20
US History Chapter 20 HIST 2112 - US History Since Reconstruction of 1878
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Susan Miller on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2112 - US History Since Reconstruction of 1878 at Kennesaw State University taught by Dr. William Price in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see History 2112 in History at Kennesaw State University.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
US History Since 1877 Chapter 20 Seizing an American Empire (1865 – 1913) I.Toward the New Imperialism A. The Navy 1. Many argued for a stronger Navy a) Required for industrial development (1) Markets overseas (2) Colonies provide raw materials b) By 1886: had 11 new battleships (1) Made US Navy the 3 most powerful behind Great Britain and Germany B. Expansion in the Pacific 1. Samoa a) Signed treaty in 1878 (1) Naval base at Pago Pago (2) Extraterritoriality for Americans (in Samoa, Americans were only subject to US law) b) Great Britain and Germany held similar arrangements with nearby islands c) Civil war broke out in 1887 (1) Peace conference in 1889 (2) Germany, US, and Great Britain in protectorate 2. Hawaii a) 1875 reciprocal trade agreement (1) Hawaiian sugar enters US tax free (2) Hawaii could not lease or give territory to another country (3) Led to growth in sugar production (a) White American sugar planters became elite (b) Native population reduced due to smallpox (4) Queen Liliuoalani (a) Tried to restrict political power of American planters on the island (b) White population overthrew the monarchy (c) Harrison tried to annex right before he left office (5) Cleveland investigated (a) Found that Americans had not acted well (b) Most Hawaiians wanted independence (c) Tried to restore the queen to power, white planters resisted (6) McKinley (a) Made excuses for why the US should annex Hawaii (b) Annexed in summer of 1898 II. The Spanish-American War (The War of 1898) A. “Free Cuba” 1. Cuban Civil War a) 1895 – 1898 b) Guerilla war against Spain 2. Yellow Journalism a) William Randolph Hearst (New York Journal) vs. Joseph Pulitzer (New York World) (1) Tried to outdo one another with sensational (and mostly false) headlines about the war in Cuba (2) Hearst claimed that newspapers “had the power to declare war” b) US did indeed declare war on Spain (1) To protect investments in Cuba (2) Hearst took credit for it (3) Many Protestant ministers also supported the war because it was against Catholic Spain B. The Political Path to War 1. US Battleship Maine a) De Lome Letter (1) Spanish ambassador to US sent letter to a friend in Havana (a) Summarized McKinley’s annual message to Congress (b) Super negative b) 6 days later, the Maine mysteriously exploded (1) 260/350 sailors drowned (2) McKinley thought it was an accident (later it was found to be an unintentional coal explosion) and did not want to go to war (3) Roosevelt (SecNav) encouraged public’s antagonism 2. Declaration of War a) McKinley gave in b) Congress declared Cuba independent on April 20 (1) Demanded Spanish forces leave (2) Began blockading Cuban ports c) Declared war on April 24, 1898 (1) The Teller Amendment (a) Denied US intention to annex Cuba (2) Asked for 125,000 volunteers (a) Got close to a million (b) Included Roosevelt, who immediately resigned cabinet position C. “A Splendid Little War” 1. Lasted only 114 days a) Set US on course toward imperialism 2. The Philippines a) Roosevelt told Commodore George Dewey to engage Spanish forces in case of a war in Cuba (1) 6 modern warships destroyed and captured Spanish vessels (2) Possessed Manilla Bay but lacked manpower to take the islands (3) Emilio Aguinaldo (a) Leader of Filipino nationalist movement (b) Declared islands independent in June and helped Americans defeat the Spanish b) McKinley had no idea this was going on and literally had to find a map to see where the Philippines were D. The Cuban Campaign 1. The Rough Riders a) Conglomeration of all sorts of young men (1) All good riders and good shots (2) 578 total b) Landed in June 1898 (1) No horses (lost in shipping?) (2) Successfully took the southeastern tip of Cuba (3) Seized Kettle Hill (a) Exaggerated newspaper coverage made Roosevelt a home-front legend (b) He loved every second of it, requested a Congressional Medal of Honor (didn’t get it, Bill Clinton awarded it posthumously) E. Spanish Defeat and Concessions 1. Spanish Fleet a) Made one last run to escape b) 474 Spaniards killed or wounded, 1 American killed, 1 American wounded 2. Surrender a) July 17 b) July 25: Americans take Puerto Rico 3. Treaty of Paris a) Cuba gained independence b) US annexed Puerto Rico, continued to occupy Manilla Bay III. Consequences of Victory A. Annexing the Philippines 1. McKinley’s Motives a) Treaty of Paris left Philippines unresolved (1) Business leaders wanted a door to Chinese markets (2) Missionaries wanted to bring Christianity b) Reasons (1) National glory (2) Commerce (3) Racial Superiority (4) Evangelism c) Offered Spain $20 million for Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam 2. Debating the Treaty a) Senate had a hard time ratifying the Treaty of Paris (1) Said it might be unconstitutional; violates American principle of self- government (2) William Jennings Bryan (major Democrat dude) convinced Democratic Senators (3) Ratified on February 6, 1899 b) Filipinos had a different opinion (1) Declared independence again in January 1899 (a) Named Emilio Aguinaldo president (2) American soldier shot and killed two of Aguinaldo’s men (insurrectos) (a) Without investigating, US Army commander ordered troops to assault insurrectos, began armed conflict (3) The Philippine Republic declared war on the US on June 2, 1899 3. The Philippine-American War (1898-1902) a) Brutal conflict (1) Death by massacre and prompted by racism on both sides (2) US troops burned villages, tortured, and executed prisoners (3) Both sides used torture to gain information (a) Americans adopted waterboarding from Spanish conquistadors (b) Roosevelt: “nobody was seriously damaged by the water cure” b) April 1, 1901 (1) Aguinaldo accepted US authority and pledged allegiance to US c) American Anti-Imperialist League (1) Combination of several anti-imperialism groups (2) Paid for by Carnegie B. Organizing the New Colonies 1. Philippine Government Act (1902) a) Declared islands an “unorganized territory” b) William Howard Taft became civil governor c) Jones Act (1917) (1) Affirmed US intention to grant Philippine independence (2) Didn’t come until 1946 2. Foraker Act (1900) a) Established government on Puerto Rico, residents declared citizens of Puerto Rico b) Only made US citizens in 1917 3. Cuba a) US established order and granted Cuba independence (1) Required that Cuba never give lands to another country (2) US had right to intervene whenever it thought it should (3) US gets a naval base (Guantanamo Bay) and land to be used for coaling C. Imperial Rivalries in East Asia 1. Open-Door Policy a) By SecState John Hay b) Background (1) European powers carving China into “spheres of influence” after Japan’s defeat of China in the first Sino-Japanese War (2) Great Britain invited US to join in, refused because no investment in China c) Purpose: China should remain open to trade (1) Ports and territory should not be controlled (2) Britain agreed, other neither agreed nor disagreed (3) Hayes took that to mean they liked his plan d) Appealed to those who opposed imperialism e) Little legal standing 2. The Boxers a) Group of Chinese nationalists (called the “Fists of Righteous Harmony”) (1) Rebelled against foreign involvement (esp. missionary efforts) (2) Laid siege to foreign embassies in Peking (now Beijing) (3) British, German, Russian, Japanese, and American soldiers were sent to rescue the diplomat + staff (4) Boxer Rebellion ended in 6 weeks IV. Roosevelt’s “Big Stick” Diplomacy A. A “Rocket” Rise to Prominence 1. Background a) Born into an upper-class family (went to Europe and studied with a personal tutor as a child) b) Graduated Harvard with honors 2. Political Rise a) Became the youngest member of the NY Legislature in 1882 (1) Briefly quit politics after the deaths of his mother and wife, went to the Dakota Territory and lived the “western life” b) Remarried, unsuccessfully ran for mayor c) Campaign for McKinley and asked for the SecNav position in return d) Gained popularity and recognition with the Rough Riders e) Slogan: “Speak softly and carry a big stick.” (African proverb) B. From Vice President to President 1. Election of 1900 a) Democrats (1) Nominated William Jennings Bryan (2) Condemned Philippine War b) Republicans (1) Renominated McKinley (2) Chose Roosevelt (“Mr. Imperialism) as his running mate c) Outcome (1) Republicans won 7.2 to 6.4 million (2) 292 to 155 in the electoral college 2. Assassination of McKinley a) September 14, 1901 b) Bumped Roosevelt up to the Presidency (1) Youngest man ever to become President (42 years old) 3. Presidency a) First truly activist President (1) Cast nearly every issue in moral or patriotic terms (2) Viewed the presidency as a platform for delivering speeches on “honesty, courage, and civic-duty” b) Foreign Affairs (1) Argued that the US needed to take control and bring “law, order, and righteousness” to “backwards peoples” 4. The Panama Canal a) Obstacles (1) The Bidlack Treaty (1846): Guaranteed Columbia’s control over Panama (2) Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (1850): British agreed to stop taking Central American territory and US agreed to only build canal with mutual consent b) Outcome (1) Panama revolted and became independent (2) Agreed that the US could pay $10 million + $250,000 per year to build the canal (3) Took 10 years to build (4) One third of the 60,000 workers died building it (5) Finished August 14, 1914 (a) Two weeks after the start of WWI 5. Roosevelt and Latin America a) “Theft” Panama Canal Zone (1) Created generations of ill will (2) Countries also upset by American and European interference in affairs b) The Drago Doctrine (1902) (1) Prohibited armed intervention of other countries to collect debts (2) German and British war ships blocked Venezuela’s coast in defiance of the doctrine as well as the Monroe Doctrine (1823, prohibited European intervention in the Western Hemisphere) c) The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1) Stated that the US had the right to intervene in Latin America to prevent Europeans from intervening (2) Presidents used this to ensure that Latin American nations paid their debts US banks V. Relations with Japan A. Roosevelt plays peacemaker in Asia 1. Outbreak of Russo-Japanese War a) Over Japan’s attempts to influence Korea and China b) Japanese warships destroyed Russian fleet (1) Occupied Korean peninsula (2) Drove Russians into Manchuria c) Roosevelt sponsored a peace conference in Portsmouth, NH (1) Russia acknowledged Japan’s “predominant political, military, and economic interests in Korea” (2) Both powers agreed to leave Manchuria 2. Taft-Katsura Agreement (1905) a) William Howard Taft met with the Japanese foreign minister in Tokyo (1) US accepted Japanese control of Korea (2) Japan acknowledges US control of the Philippines 3. Root-Takahira Agreement a) Negotiated by SecState and Japanese ambassador to the US b) Reinforced the Open-Door Policy by supporting the independence of China B. Mutual Distrust 1. Concern over “yellow peril” 2. Racial conflict on the West Coast did not help relations with Japan a) School segregation in San Francisco b) Japanese government protested c) Gentleman’s Agreement (1907): Roosevelt persuaded the school board to change its policy (after he made sure that the Japanese government would stop encouraging unemployed Japanese laborers to go to America) VI. The Great White Fleet A. Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy” 1. Republican William Howard Taft succeeded Roosevelt in 1909 2. Promoted American economic interests abroad a) Helped American companies invest in foreign countries b) Intervened in politics of said nations to ensure stability of trade 3. Supported revolution in Nicaragua a) SecState Philander C. Knox helped negotiate loans to prop up the new government b) Two years later, Taft sent troops to restore political stability (1) They stayed for ten years B. Wilson’s Interventionism 1. Democrat Woodrow Wilson succeeded Taft in 1913 2. Attacked dollar diplomacy as a form of economic imperialism a) Still argued that US should intervene to stabilize weak governments to keep Europe from doing the exact same thing b) Sent troops to Cuba once, Panama twice, and Honduras five times c) Dominican refused to sign treaty (1) Would have given US role in governing the nation (2) Wilson sent the Marines (a) Established a military government (b) Fought a guerilla war (3) Intervened in Haiti next door the following year C. The United States in Mexico 1. Turmoil a) 1910: revolted against the dictator (1) He had allowed foreign countries to develop the nation’s economy without restrictions b) 1911: Revolutionary armies occupied Mexico City (1) Rebels began fighting among themselves (2) Leader overthrown by chief of staff, General Victoriano Huerta who then had 30 political opponents murdered c) Huerta established a dictatorship (1) Wilson ordered his removal (2) Rival revolutionaries started to try to unseat him 2. Occupation a) In 1914, Wilson sent troops to Veracruz b) 300 Mexicans killed, 19 Americans killed, in the occupation process c) Instead of seeing the Americans as liberators, as Wilson had hoped, the Mexicans saw them as invaders (1) Left in late 1914, after seven months (2) Distracted from further intervention by the advent of WWI
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