Week 2, TV and America
Week 2, TV and America RTV 3405
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rae Knopik on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to RTV 3405 at University of Florida taught by Robert H. Wells in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see TV and American Society in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
SuperBowl XXXVIII Incident (Janet Jackson and Justin Timberlake) : a huge fine, voided ● How can the ways to examine TV be applied to the incident? Tv as a: ○ Technological medium: immediate, live exposure, photos and recordings to reference for the public. ■ Tv isn’t live anymore, we’ve since introduced a delay for live events that are televised. ○ Industry: bred lawsuits and fines. ○ Political institution censorship about hat content should be on tv an at what times. ■ FIC and gov officials/politicians used it as a platform to set themselves apart by calling it “Indecent exposure” ○ Cultural representation of the US: separated people of different cultures and generations. It also helped to established men's’ control over women’s bodies. ○ Textual form: How the text itself covered the incident. ○ Everyday life: this type of tv entertainment is part of a cultural ritual: where families gather each evening to watch programs together. TV AS A TECHNOLOGICAL MEDIUM: 3 ways to examine the relationship between technology and society 1. Technological determinism: the belief that technological development determines social and cultural change (analogy 1: the remote control is an extension of our arms, it turns us into couch potatoes. Analogy 2: Texting makes gives us detached intimacy) a. Marshall McLuhan predicted a global village (internet; social media) with a homogenized society. He said “the medium is the message” (we see things for what device they arrive to us via.) b. Some scholars more pessimistic: TV reduces our critical thinking and we are more concerned with our appearances and less civically engaged. Their theory follows that viewers don’t have to be educated to be influenced by TV. However in this way it is also a great equalizer. c. To study, look at the uses, limitations, and effects of media technologies 2. Social construction (meaning) of technology: human culture and interpretation determine the meaning of technology. Technology has no meaning outside of social context (Analogy 1: the one who holds the remote control is the one in control of power in the living room. The remote is a symbol of power. Analogy 2: The better phone, the more popular a kid was in middle school). a. To study the social construction of technology, look at the historic, social, and cultural meanings of media. 3. Social shaping (developing) of technology: Human choices, whether consciously or not, determine what technology becomes (analogy 1: TV dials were inconvenient, thus we invented the remote control. Analogy 2: Ipods turned into iphones because it is more convenient to have everything in one device). a. To study, look at market research, societal demands that shaped designs of media technology. A brief history of Radio: ● Guglielmo Marconi invented the radio (1895) as well as the first broadcasting medium. He was Italian but his idea was not recognized in Italy so he brought it to England where it took off. ○ Again, this is so significant because for the first time in history, you didn’t need to be educated to be exposed to information. You didn’t need to read. ○ Popularity exploded in 1920s to 1930s. ○ Helped to bring a similar culture into the American living room. (it was the first step toward a homogenized culture like Marshal McLuhan had predicted) A brief history of Motion Picture: ● Invented by adweard Muybridge (1872), he showed a racing horse on film by means of the Zoopraxiscope ● A form of entertainment: Edison Lab’s Kintegraph “peephole movie” in 1889. Sneezing was the first copyrighted motion picture (Fred Ott’s sneeze in 1894). People came to watch these shorts in rooms called Kinetograph Parlors. ● Mass entertainment (1894): Auguste and Louis Lumiere patent the cinematograph aka projected images out onto a screen, which allowed for mass audiences ○ 1895 “Exiting the Factory”: first projected film ○ 1895 “L'Arrivée d’un Train À la Ciotat”: the first public motion picture viewing to a paying audience. ● Slowly motion picture was developing into a storytelling medium, not just moving images. Movie makers are starting to use cuts, edits, and special effects. Not just one take. ○ 1902 “A Trip to the Moon” by Georges Melies: 1st sci fi ○ 1903 “The Great Train Robbery” by Edwin Porter: first action film, first western, first blockbuster ● Emergence of Hollywood and the star system. Celebrities ○ 192848: Golden era of movies, Charlie Chaplin joined the scene ○ Genres were established. With WWII electronic manufacturing began to pick up. Rise in consumer life. TV eclipse movies as the most popular pastime for families. It’s starting to gain momentum and money. Corporate Investment in TV. ● 1939: RCA’s NBC network TV debuted at World’s Fair ● FDR 1st president on TV in 1939 ● TV not popular at the time. ○ Few programs, expensive for viewers and producers, and technology wasn’t standardized. ● After WWII, TV took off with NBC, CBS, ABC, and DuMont ○ 128+ stations ● Television Stars: Milton Berle: Mr. Television from The Texaco Star Theater (TV sales doubled from this town 19481956 and water use dropped) ○ Most TV shows were performed live ○ Meet the Press, longest running TV series started in 1945 ● Suburban life: changing our culture ○ Watched tv socially at pubs and with fam at home, TV dinner ○ Rise of Ads and consumer culture ● Regulations in the 40s: These standards slowed progression of color TV ○ National Television System Committee standards set: 4:3 ratio, bw, 525 lines of resolution, 30 frames per second. ○ 194852 FCC ordered a channel freeze to figure out what a standard transmission would be and to make room for education and to fix overlap. ■ Color TV standard, reduce channel interference. ■ ABC, NBC, CBS established their dominance during the freeze and grew their audiences/reputations. 1950s and 60s: More variety, first generation of people growing up with TV, conformity in the 50s and anticonformity views in the 60s, and the first regular shows ● 50s: Color tv, videotapes, & CATV (allowed further distribution of TV) ○ Community Antenna TeleVision (CATV) ■ Entrepreneurial venture by dealers to promote TV series and broadcast to remote areas: antennae on hills distributed signal to rural communities ■ 640+ systems were installed in the 1960s so now more people than ever could tune into the new American identity. ● Walt Disney’s Wonderful World of Color 19611969 boosted demands for color TVS even though they were expensive. ● By 1967 most programs were in color but only 5% of homes had color TV ● Videotape Recorder: 1956 first by Ampex, and it was less expensive and enabled editing of programming. ● Changes in TV ○ Hollywood joins tv and Disney is on ABC ○ New genres such as game shows, soaps, and kids’ shows come into play ○ Celebrities: Elvis, Beatles, and the Ed Sullivan Show, Rolling Stones, the Doors, ○ I love Lucy: the birth of Little Ricky episode was the most watched tv program at the time, it had more ratings than the Presidential inauguration that aired THE NEXT DAY. ○ Quiz Shows raised awareness of scandals and mistrust in TV viewers because they were rigged, so ratings dropped, sponsors’ direct influence decreased, audiences became more skeptical of TV. ● FCC regulations ○ 1934: Federal Communications Commission formed to control the public spectrum and prohibits obscene or indecent content ● Selfregulation ○ To avoid problems, TV broadcasters selfregulated (couples slept in separate beds), it established a code of conduct in 1952. ■ Self screened their shows for lasciviousness ● TV a political force in the 1960s: emergence of counterculture ○ 1954: Edward R. Murrow publicly challenged Sen. Joseph McCarthy: by accusing him of being communist and being blacklisted (modernday witch hunting). The press actually stood up with the popular opinion (Sen McCarthy innocent), = the idea of objectivity pre atchdog journalism someone is holding politicians accountable to what they say and do. ○ 1960: Nixon vs. JFK debate The first televised debate, JFK was cuter so he won the debate. Those who heard the debates on the radio thought that Nixon won. JFK looked right at the camera when he answered the questions. ○ 1963: ■ Nation watched announcement of J FK assassination over TV ■ Dr. MLK Jr’s I have a Dream Speech @ Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington ○ 1980s: MTV, Hairspray, VCRs, video games, the remote control (skip ads by channel surfing ■ Public’s relationship with TV sets changed with: ● VCR: time shifting and home video industry expands ● Video Games: tv is now an interactive device ● Narrowcasting: instead of a mass audience, tv began to target niche audiences/markets. ● Cable channels: carved out niches and challenged the networks Late 1990s: Digitalization ● Digital TV (DTV): standards set ○ Telecommunications act of 1996: helped encourage the transition but wasn’t completed until June 12, 2009. ○ Coupons offered for converter boxes for people with analog TVs ● Why? ○ Spectrums for public safety communications for police and fire depts. ○ Space for wireless internet services ○ Multicasting: ubchannels ○ Datacasting: space for other signals like ads, emergency, and weather (TV guide on screen) ○ HighDef (HDTV) allowed for higher resolutions and larger aspect ratio ○ Multimedia creation: m ultiple formats on a single platform (watching digital TV on your computer) ○ Allows multiple messages to share a single channel. ○ Improves image quality ○ Content Sharing (editing TV content on your computer and sharing it on the internet), no more converting print or analog to digital because you lost the quality and it was incredibly time consuming ○ User Generated Content ■ Rise of digital media, home computing, smart phones, internet, social media ■ This Participatory culture wasn’t new, but more accessible. (hate email vs hate mail) ○ Social media: which is also profiting hugely from user generated content Television’s development being influenced by radio/movies ● Media Convergence: “the flow of content across multiple media platforms” (including content created by the audience) Jenkins, 2006. There are three types 1. Ownership Convergence: number of corporations that control the majority of US media has decreased (1983 there were 50, 198720, 20054, 2016 back up to 6). Legislation led to these mergers being legal a. The big 6: i. Comcast: NBC, Telemundo, Universal, MSNBC, Bravo ii. Disney: ABC, ESPN, Disney Channel, Disney Mobile, Touchstone, Miramax, Pixar, Marvel Lucasfilm iii. News Corp: Fox, Wall Street Journal, NY Post, TV Guide iv. Time Warner: CNN, CW, HBO, Cinemax, Cartoon Network, Warner Bros, DC Comics, more than 150 mags v. Viacom: MTV, Nickelodeon, VH1, BET, Comedy Central, Paramount Pictures vi. CBS: CBS News, Columbia Picture, Tristar Picture, Showtime, Simon and Schuster, 30 Tv Stations, 130 radio stations. b. Disadvantages: it’s a monopoly which prevents startups. Big business can equal bad journalism as corporations control info flow. Ie: Rupert Madoff and media ownership concentration. c. Advantages: As one of these businesses: it’s easier to control exactly what goes on your stations. What goes along with this are huge finances and high quality tv and movies 2. Content Convergence: Transmedia storytelling: stand alone stories told across media platforms (matrix comics, movies, videogames), and crossmedia promotion (publicity across different mediums). 3. Technological Convergence: Your phone is now a ....... everything a. Collective Intelligence b. Pierre Levy: No one knows everything, everyone knows something, all knowledge resides in humanity: i. Wikipedia c. Communities of Interest: voluntary and temporary, lead to mutual production, provide reciprocal exchange of knowledge. Convergence is happening at the top and the bottom: ● Highly concentrated ownership: top of convergence forces (the big 6) ○ More political, social, and cultural influence ○ Stronger gatekeeping: what can get on tv ○ Less competition through oligopoly ● Bottom of convergence forces (everyday people) ○ More access, lower production costs ○ Faster, mass distribution ○ More competition and diversity ○ Ways around gatekeepers. Describe the types of Convergences associated with the #BlackLivesMatter movement ● Started on Social media (twitter) and later went to TV ● Convergence types: technological convergence with phones and social media, it appears on a lot of platforms (Content convergence)