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Chapter 3: Reading Guide

by: Madelyne Crawford

Chapter 3: Reading Guide CHEM-111

Marketplace > Campbell University > Chemistry > CHEM-111 > Chapter 3 Reading Guide
Madelyne Crawford


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About this Document

These notes are a reading guide and go over what we will be quizzed on during class on Wednesday, September 14. Attached at the end of the notes is a Quizlet to help you study for the verbal quizzes!
General Chemistry
Dr. Kesling
Class Notes
General Chemistry
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madelyne Crawford on Monday September 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM-111 at Campbell University taught by Dr. Kesling in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at Campbell University.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
Chapter 3: Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical Equations Section 3.1: Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Water  When two or more elements combine, forming a compound, a completely new and different substance results o Ex: hydrogen (explosive gas) and oxygen (key to combustion) combine to produce water (very different than hydrogen and oxygen)  Know the difference between compound and mixture!!!: compound is combinations of elements in definite proportions and mixtures are random proportions that do not matter Section 3.2: Chemical Bonds  Chemical bonds hold the atoms together that compose compounds o Why do bonds form? - attractions between protons and electrons  Two types of chemical bonds: o Ionic- occur between metals and nonmetals (involves the TRANSFER of electrons between atoms) o Covalent- occur between two or more nonmetals (involves sharing of electrons between atoms)  Know that metals usually lose electrons and nonmetals gain electrons  Know that cations are positively charged ions and anions are negative  Ionic bond- formed by the oppositely charged cations and anions attracting one another through electrostatic forces  Ionic compound- the result of ionic bonds; made up of a lattice (a 3D array) of alternating cations and anions  Covalent bond- formation: when two nonmetals bond together, the electrons do not transfer; instead, they share some of each of their electrons; shared e- have lower potential energy because they have interacted with the nuclei of both atoms  Molecule- composed by the covalently bound atoms in a covalent bond  Molecular compounds- covalently bonded compounds o WHY? Because each molecule is dependent on all the others Section 3.3: Representing Compounds- Chemical Formulas and Molecular Models  Chemical formula- fastest and simplest way to represent a compound; identifies the elements in the compound and number of atoms or ions in each element  Chemical formulas- characterized into three kinds: o Empirical formula- tells the relative # of atoms of element within a compound; voices the least info o Molecular formula- actual # of atoms of each element in a molecule of a compound o Structural formula- uses lines to represent covalent bonds and shows how atoms in a molecule connect or bond to one another; voices most of the info  Can also be used to indicate some of the molecule’s geometry  Can also show different types of bonds in molecules  Molecular model- a more accurate way to specify a compound  Ball-and-stick molecular model- atoms=balls, bonds=sticks; used to reflect the molecule’s shape through connections  Space-filling molecular model- atoms fill up the space between each other to more accurately show the best guess for how a molecule may look if it were a visible size  Tetrahedron- formed by four hydrogen atoms Section 3.4: An Atomic-Level View of Elements and Compounds  Atomic elements- found in nature with their basic units being single atoms o Ex: helium is made up of helium atoms  Molecular elements- not usually found in nature with their basic units being single atoms o They exist as molecules- two or more atoms bonded together chemically o Diatomic molecules- hydrogen is made up of H2 molecules o Polyatomic molecules- phosphorous exists as P4 molecules o Usually made up of two or more covalently-bonded nonmetals o Ionic compounds- usually made up of metals ionically bonded to nonmetals  Formal unit- basic unit of an ionic compound; smallest neutral group of ions  Polyatomic ion- ions made up of two or more atoms Section 3.5: Ionic Compounds- Formulas and Names  Formulas for ionic compounds can be deduced because: o Charge-neutral o Most elements form just one ion with a predictable charge  Common names- nicknames that are learned because of familiarity o Ex: NaCl= table salt  Systematic names- determined from chemical formulas; developed by scientists for different kinds of compounds  Steps in naming an ionic compound: Identify it as an ionic compound (composed of metals and nonmetals!!!) o Types of ionic compounds: 1) a metal that has a charge that does not vary from compound to compound and 2) contains metal with a charge that is different from compound to compound (most often are transition metals)  Binary compounds- only have two different elements o Name: name of cation (metal) + base name of anion (nonmetal) + “-ide” o More than one cation is named: name of cation + charge of cation in Roman numerals + base name of anion o Naming ionic compounds with polyatomic ions- use same strategy but ass polyatomic ion’s name whenever it occurs  Oxyanions- anions that have oxygen and another element o If there are just two ions, the one with more O atoms has –ate ending and the one with fewer has –ite ending o More than two: prefixes hypo- (less than) and per- (more than) are used  Hydrates- have a specific # of water molecules associated with each formula unit o Waters of hydration- the seven water molecules associated with each formula unit; can be removed with heat  Cannot be determined from constituent elements because the same combo of elements may form from different molecular compounds  How to name: prefix + name of first element + prefix + base name of second element + -ide  Prefixes given to each element tell the number of atoms: o Mono= 1 o Di= 2 o Tri= 3 o Tetra= 4 o Penta= five  Acids- molecular compounds that put out hydrogen ions when dissolved in water o Characterized by sour taste and ability to dissolve many metals o Ex: hydrochloric acid in our stomach o Two types of acids:  Binary- composed of hydrogen and a nonmetal (name: hydro + base name of nonmetal + acid)  Oxyacids- contain hydrogen and an oxygen (Name: ending with –ate is base name + -ic + acid and ending with –ite is base name of oxyanion + -ous + acid Section 3.7: Summary of Inorganic Nomenclature  Having to name a compound without knowing what category it is part of  How to use the chart (find chart in book pg. 106) o Determine the kind of compound you are attempting to name o Figure out whether the metal in the compound forms just one kind of ion or more than one kind o Name the compound based on the blocks at the end of the path in the chart Section 3.8: Formula Mass and the Mole Concept for Compounds  Formula mass- defines the average mass of a molecule of a compound o = (# atoms of 1 element in chemical formula X atomic mass of 1 element) + (# atoms of second element X atomic mass of 2 nd element) + … o the molar mass of a compound is numerically equal to its formula mass Section 3.9: Composition of Compounds  mass percent composition- used to express how much of an element is in a certain compound o = (mass pf element in one mole of compound / mass of 1 mole of the compound) X 100%  mass percent composition is a conversion factor between mass of element and mass of compound  always remember that chemical formula only tells the relationship between the amounts (in moles), not the masses Section 3.10: Determining a Chemical Formula from Experimental Data  the molecular formula of a compound can be found from the empirical formula if the molar mass is also known o molecular formula= empirical formula X n (n= 1, 2, 3….)  empirical formula molar mass- sum of the masses of all the atoms in the empirical formula o molar mass= empirical formula molar mass X n  if the value of n is the same: o n= molar mass/ empirical formula molar mass  combustion analysis- another way to figure out formulas for unknown compounds; unknown compound goes through combustion in presence of pure oxygen and then samples are weighed Section 3.11: Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations  combustion analysis employs a chemical reaction- process where one or more substances are converted into one or more different ones o ex: water is formed through reaction between hydrogen and oxygen  combustion reaction- specific type of chemical reaction where a substance combines with oxygen to form one or more oxygen- containing compounds o emit heat, critical for supplying energy needs  chemical equation- represents a chemical reaction  reactants- substances on the left side of the equations  products- substances on the right  balance an equation- change the coefficients (#s in front of chemical formulas, not the subscripts) to make the # of each atom on left equal to number on the right o matter has to be conserved- new atoms do not form during reactions  Guidelines for balancing equations: o 1. Write a skeletal equation; write formulas for each reactant and product o 2. Balance atoms that are in more complex substances first; balance atoms in compounds before atoms in pure elements o 3. Free elements get balanced last; adjust their coefficients o 4. Clear coefficient fractions o 5. Make sure the equation is balanced by adding the total # of each atom on both sides of equation Section 3.12: Organic Compounds  organic compounds- made up of carbon and hydrogen and some other elements: nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur o common in everyday substances (like perfume and spices)  carbon is the backbone of millions of different chemical compounds (forms bonds with itself)  hydrocarbons- organic compounds that are made up of only carbon and hydrogen o common fuels, like gasoline and natural gas o alkanes- hydrocarbons containing only single bonds o alkenes- double bonds o alkynes- triple bonds  functionalized group- characteristic atom or group of atoms o functionalized hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons in which functionalized groups are incorporated into the hydrocarbon o ex: alcohols  family- a group of organic compounds with the same functional group Quizlet!!


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